Country flag

Country profile for Syria

Provided Courtesy of Security Exchange 24

Risk Rating

Red (High Risk)
Red (High Risk) InTouch advice:

Most parts of the country are dangerous.

Do not travel unless absolutely necessary.

Unselected
Amber (Moderate Risk) InTouch advice:

Some parts of the country are dangerous.

Travel with caution.

Unselected
Green (Low Risk) InTouch advice:

Most parts of the country are safe.

Travel freely.

General Information

  • Capital: Damascus
  • Major Languages: Arabic
  • Currency: Syrian Pound
  • Timezone: GMT +2:00

Country Map

Map of Syria

Syria has been completely devastated by the ongoing civil war and is regarded as an extremely high-risk destination for travellers. What began as a local protest in the al-Hariqa neighbourhood of Damascus in February, 2011 quickly escalated into a nationwide outbreak of violent unrest. That August hundreds of people were killed by the Syrian security forces in Hama - the epicentre of the anti-government protests - while in December two car bombs exploded outside the intelligence agency HQ in Damascus, killing 44 people. Opposition supporters began to take up arms against President Bashar al-Assad’s government and the country descended into civil war in 2012. The besieged government forces have dropped barrel bombs and used chemical weapons in civilian areas on multiple occasions and by the start of 2015 the UN estimated that 220,000 people had been killed in the war, with more than 11 million displaced.

In the early years of the conflict the principal anti-Assad group was the Free Syrian Army (FSA), regarded as a moderate opposition faction led by defected members of the Syrian army. However, they have since been largely superseded by extremist Sunni militant groups, such as the Islamic State (IS), Ahrar al-Sham and the Nusra Front. Large numbers of FSA fighters were reported to have left to join the extremist groups, although since 2014 the Southern Front of the FSA has made territorial gains in the southern Daraa and Quneitra governorates, signalling a resurgence in the moderate opposition. In 2015 the FSA also cooperated with the Army of Conquest (Jaish al-Fatah), a coalition of moderate and extremist rebel groups which has seized several key positions in the northern Idlib province, including the provincial capital.  

Meanwhile the Islamic State (IS) has captured large swathes of territory in the centre and east of Syria, stretching across the border into neighbouring Iraq as part of its self-declared Islamic caliphate. This includes the ancient Semitic city of Palmyra, which the group captured in May, 2015 and have since largely destroyed.  Along the northern border with Turkey the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) - backed by US airstrikes - have also emerged as a key component of the conflict.  Since 2013 the YPG have reclaimed large areas from IS, including the key border towns of Kobani and Tal Abyad.

Aside from fighting al-Assad’s government, Syria’s various rebel groups are often at war with each other. This is particularly true in relation to IS and Nusra Front since the two groups split acrimoniously in 2013. Abu Mohammad al-Julani, the leader of the Nusra Front, rejected an official merger with IS and reaffirmed his group’s allegiance to al-Qaeda leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri. In June, 2015, al-Julani estimated that IS had killed an estimated 700 Nusra fighters and the two rivals continue to vie for position as the leading jihadist group in Syria and beyond. There is also a significant sectarian element to the conflict in Syria, with Lebanon’s Hezbollah and Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (both Shia) directly involved in fighting alongside the government forces. Iran’s nuclear deal with the West, which will see crippling economic sanctions against Tehran lifted, could result in increased economic and military assistance to Assad, further extending the fighting. The conflict in Syria is extremely fluid and the levels of violence are expected to increase into 2016 as the various rebel groups attempt to force the collapse of Assad’s government and seize the capital, Damascus.

There is a high-risk of kidnapping across Syria. At least two dozen foreign nationals – mostly journalists and aid workers - have been kidnapped by IS in the country. While the majority have been freed in exchange for significant ransom payments, several of the less fortunate victims were beheaded. These include four Americans, two Brits and two Japanese journalists. IS have also kidnapped thousands of Syrians in recent years, including more than 200 Assyrian Christians seized from the north east of the country in February, 2015. The conflict has resulted in a complete breakdown in law and order across most of the country, allowing extremist and criminal groups to act with relative impunity.  Crime levels are extremely high and the security forces are not able to respond to the majority of incidents.

News articles

By Telegraph

IS murder Japanese hostage

Isil militants have murdered Kenji Goto, the second Japanese hostage to be killed in a week.

By BBC

Journalists killed in missile attack

Three journalists from the Syrian opposition TV channel Orient News have been killed while covering clashes in the country's south-west, reports say.

By Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera correspondent dies in Syria

Al Jazeera Media Network has announced the death of its Arabic correspondent in Syria, Mahran Al Deeri, while covering battles in the city of Al Sheikh Maskin in rural Daraa.

By Hannah Storm

Why journalism matters: tribute to James Foley

It was late yesterday evening in the UK when the news started circulating of a video purporting to show the beheading of the American freelance journalist James Foley. 

By Associated Press

3 journalists for Hezbollah TV killed in Syria

(BEIRUT) — Hezbollah-owned Al-Manar TV says three of its journalists have been killed after they came under attack in the Syrian town of Maaloula.

By Free Syria's Silenced Voices

Death of the journalist Mo’az al-Khaled

A poet, journalist and third-year student at Damascus media college who was originally from the Golan Plateau, Mo’az al-Khaled was just 23 when political security officials arrested him at his home in the Damascus district of Barzeh on 4 June 2012 because of his coverage of peaceful demonstrations in Barzeh and neighbouring Qaboun.

View all articles for Syria

Alerts for Syria

Turkish soldier killed by sniper along Syrian border

A Turkish soldier has been killed by sniper fire from across the Syrian border.  The military said the soldier was in the Hatay province when he was hit by shots from Syria's Afrin on Wednesday.  The Turkish military responded by returning fire into the territory, which is controlled by the Kurdish YPG militia.  The YPG said Turkey had fired the first shots, wounding at least 10 civilians in villages near the border.

Airstrikes hit school near Raqqa

At least 33 people have been killed in an airstrike on a school near the northern city of Raqqa.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said displaced people were sheltering inside the building outside Mansoura when the strike hit.  US-led coalition jets are believed to have carried out the strikes, although there has been no official confirmation from the Pentagon.

Rebels launch fresh Damascus assault

Rebel fighters have launched a fresh assault on Syrian government positions in east Damascus.  Gunmen began the offensive at around 05:00 local time in the Abassiyin area of Jobar district.  "We launched the new offensive and we restored all the points we withdrew from on Monday. We have control over the Abassiyin garages and began storming it," the leader of the Failaq al Rahman group told Reuters.  Regime forces carried out dozens of airstrikes in the rebel stronghold of Eastern Ghouta following an assault by rebels over the weekend.

Rebels attack government positions in Damascus

Rebel fighters launched an assault on government forces in the capital, Damascus, on Sunday.  Car bombs and suicide attacks were used in the offensive in the Jobar and Qaboun districts, before the regime responded with more than 30 airstrikes. Tahrir al-Sham - the latest incarnation of the Nusra Front - and the Failaq al-Rahman group claimed responsibility for the attack.

Israel carries out airstrikes in Syria

Israeli jets have carried out airstrikes against targets in Syria, according to a statement by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF).  The strikes prompted Syria to launch ground-to-air missiles, one of which was shot down by an aerial defence system.  Syria's military condemned the strikes, which hit sites near Palmyra, and claimed that one Israeli jet was shot down.

Airstrike kills 42 in Aleppo mosque

At least 42 people have been killed in an airstrike on a mosque in the northern province of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said jets struck the rebel-held village of al-Jineh on Thursday.  The US military said its forces carried out a strike in the area, but denied reports that the mosque was targeted.

Suicide bomber targets Justice Palace, Damascus

A suicide bomb attack has hit the Justice Palace in central Damascus.  Initial reports from the Sana news agency suggest that at least 25 people have been killed in the blast at the complex in Hamidiya.  There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the attack.  A second blast was reported in the Rabweh area of the city, where a suicide bomber detonated a device at a restaurant.

Jihadist group claims Damascus bombing

A jihadist group has claimed responsibility for the twin bomb attack in Syria's capital, Damascus, on Friday.  At least 70 people were confirmed dead on Sunday following the blast, which targeted Iraqi Shia pilgrims at the Bab al-Saghir cemetery.  Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, the latest incarnation of the Nusra Front, said the attack was targeting "occupying Iranian militias".

US Marines deployed to Raqqa

Several hundred US Marines have been deployed to assist allied forces in operations against Islamic State (IS) in the northern city of Raqqa.  The artillery unit, comprised of 400 Marines and Army Ranger, are added to the 500 US troops already in the country.  Coalition spokesman US Air Force Colonel John Dorrian said the unit would not have a frontline role but will help "expedite the defeat of ISIS [IS] in Raqqa".

Airstrikes kill two in Eastern Ghouta despite ceasefire

Two people have been killed in airstrikes in Eastern Ghouta, despite a ceasefire in the area.  "A young man and a woman were killed in airstrikes on Douma," the largest town in the Eastern Ghouta region, said Rami Abdel Rahman, head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  The strikes came less than 24 hours after Russia's defence ministry announced a two-week "regime of silence" in Eastern Ghouta, where the Army of Islam (Jaish al-Islam), a powerful rebel faction, is headquartered.

Four Turkish soldiers wounded near al-Bab

Four Turkish soldiers have been wounded in a mortar bomb attack near the northern town of al-Bab.  Mortar rounds were fired by the Democratic Union Party (PYD) from Manbij on Monday, leading to a return of fire from Turkey.  The wounded soldiers were transferred across the border to hospitals in Gaziantep and Kilis.

Airstrikes hit village in Hama

At least 11 civilians have been killed and dozens more wounded in airstrikes on a village in Syria's Hama province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes, which were reportedly carried out by Russian jets, hit a livestock market in the village of Oqayrabat.  Observatory head Abdel Rahman said the strikes were part of "new military operations by the Syrian regime and its Russian ally targeting jihadist positions in Hama province".  Syrian and Russian jets also carried out strikes on Islamic State (IS) positions near the ancient city of Palmyra over the weekend.

Troops re-enter ancient city of Palmyra

Syrian troops backed by Russian airstrikes have re-entered the ancient city of Palmyra.  Soldiers have reached the citadel in the west of the city, although their progress has been hampered by landmines and IEDs.  Islamic State (IS) militants recaptured the city for the second time in December, months after the Syrian armed forces had seized control of it.

China, Russia, and Bolivia prevent UN block on chemical weapon use in Syria

China, Russia, and Bolivia have voted against a United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution which planned to sanction the use of chemical weapons in Syria. Out of the 15 current members of the council, only nine voted in favour of the sanction. Bolivia joined the permanent members, China and Russia in decisively voting against the sanction, while Egypt, Ethiopia and Kazakhstan decided to abstain from voting. A successful UN resolution requires autonomous approval from all five permanent members of the UN Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States).

Al-Qaeda leader killed in Idlib airstrike

A senior al-Qaeda leader has been killed in an airstrike in Idlib province, according to reports.  Abu al-Khayr al-Masri, the second-in-command to Ayman al-Zawahiri, was targeted in the town of al-Mastuma on Sunday.  The Syrian Civil Defence said two other people died in the strike, while former al-Qaeda affiliate Jabhat Fatah al-Sham also confirmed the incident.

Turkish-backed rebels clash with Syrian troops

Turkish-backed rebel fighters have clashed with Syrian regime troops near the northern town of al-Bab.  The Free Syrian Army (FSA) said 22 government soldiers were killed during fighting near Tadef on Sunday.  Turkey has been carrying out operations against the Islamic State (IS) group as part of Operation Euphrates Shield since last August.

Regime targets rebels after Homs suicide attacks

The Syrian government launched a series of airstrikes on rebel-held areas in Homs and Damascus on Sunday.  The operation was carried out in response to a wave of suicide bomb attacks on security positions in the Ghouta and Mahatta districts of Homs on Saturday.  The Tahrir al-Sham group said it was responsible for the blasts, during which more than 40 people were killed, including General Hassan Daabul, an army intelligence chief.

Two soldiers killed in mine exlposion, Tadef

Two Turkish soldiers have been killed and three others have been wounded in a landmine explosion in the Dawar Tadef region. Turkish troops had been combing the area in a de-mining mission near the Tadef town, south of al-Bab, when a landmine exploded. The mine was likely planted by Islamic State militants.

Dozens killed in car bomb explosion, al-Bab

At least 45 people have been killed and at least 70 others have been wounded in a car bomb explosion in a village in the outskirts of the northern al-Bab area. A suicide bomber in an explosive-laden car rammed a rebel security checkpoint in the Sousian village, north-west of al-Bab, before detonating the vehicle. The bomb killed a number of Free Syrian Army rebels; however, medical charity Ambulanciers Sans Frontieres reported that of the 45 people killed, most of them had been civilians, as the checkpoint had been surrounded by civilians seeking permission to return to al-Bab at the time of the attack.

Airstrikes kill 11 in Deir al-Zor

At least 11 people have been killed and more than 30 others wounded in airstrikes in the eastern Deir al-Zor province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes hit the town of al-Sur on Tuesday.  It is not clear who carried out the strikes, although the US-led coalition has recently targeted IS in the area.  On Tuesday the US-backed Syria Democratic Forces (SDF) alliance entered the province for the first time as part of an offensive against IS.

Turkish military continues airstrikes against IS

The Turkish military has killed 15 Islamic State (IS) militants in the latest series of airstrikes near the northern town of al-Bab.  A further 29 were killed and four buildings destroyed in US-led coalition strikes in the same area.  In a statement on Tuesday, the Turkish military said a soldier was killed and two others wounded during mine clearing operations.

Four Russian soldiers killed by roadside bomb

Four Russian soldiers have been killed in a roadside bomb attack in central Syria.  The troops were travelling in a Syrian military convoy between Homs and the Tiyas air base when the device exploded.  Two other soldiers were wounded in the blast.  No group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Turkish military kills nine civilians in al-Bab shelling

At least nine civilians have been killed by Turkish artillery fire in the besieged northern town of al-Bab, according to local rights groups.  The Turkish military said 13 Islamic State (IS) "terrorists" were killed in the operation, which included airstrikes.  On Friday the military also claimed to be close to capturing the town from IS: "The operation to gain complete control of the al-Bab region has neared its end and the resistance of the Daesh [IS] terror group has largely been broken."

Turkish army targets IS near al-Bab

The Turkish army has killed 17 Islamic State (IS) militants in the latest round of airstrikes near the northern town of al-Bab.  A further 194 IS positions were targeted by the Free Syrian Army (FSA), backed by Turkish army support.  Seven FSA fighters also died in an attack on a temporary army base to the south of al-Bab on Wednesday.

Rival jihadists clash in Idlib and Hama

Rival jihadist groups have clashed in Syria's Hama and Idlib provinces.  Around 70 people were reportedly killed in the fighting between Jund al-Aqsa - linked to the Islamic State (IS) - and Tahrir al-Sham, which formed last month from a merger of Jabhat Fatah al-Sham and other Islamist groups.  Tahrir al-Sham said Jund al-Aqsa was responsible for the clashes, which occurred near Kafr Zeita, north of Hama, and Tamanaa, Khan Sheikhoun and Tal Aaas in Idlib province.

US airstrikes target IS in Iraq and Syria

US-led coalition airstrikes have been conducted in Iraq and Syria within the last 24 hours. On Sunday 12 February, 14 airstrikes were conducted on IS positions in the Abu Kamal, al-Bab, Dayr Az Zawr, and Ar Raqqah areas of Syria. Six more airstrikes were carried out on the same day, targeting IS forces in Mosul and Erbil in Iraq. In total, 4 IS tactical units. 4 IS-held building, 32 vehicles (tanks, trucks, and watercraft), various supply routes and several weapons and supply caches were destroyed. No casualties have been confirmed.

Turkish airstrikes target IS near al-Bab

Turkish airstrikes have killed at least 23 Islamic State (IS) militants near the northern town of al-Bab, according to the Turkish military.  A total of 154 IS targets were hit in the strikes, including buildings and vehicles.  The campaign to liberate the town is now in its 17th day and is part of the Operation Euphrates Shield, which began last August.

Turkish soldiers killed in Russian strikes

Three Turkish soldiers have been killed and 11 others wounded in Russian airstrikes in northern Syria.  Russian President Vladimir Putin has sent his condolences to Turkey following the strike on a house near al-Bab, which the Russians believed to contain Islamic State (IS) militants.  The two states back opposing sides in the Syrian conflict, but have been cooperating to target IS positions near al-Bab.  Putin blames poor co-ordination for the accident.

US targets al-Qaeda in Idlib

The US has killed 11 suspected al-Qaeda (AQ) members in two airstrikes in the northern province of Idlib.  The Pentagon said 10 militants were killed in a strike last Friday, while a strike on Saturday killed Abu Hani al-Masri, a senior AQ leader.  Al-Masri was "a legacy al-Qaeda terrorist with ties to the group's senior leaders, including Ayman al-Zawahiri and Osama bin Laden," said Eric Pahon, a Department of Defense spokesman.  Last year AQ's main affiliate in Syria, the Nusra Front, said it was cutting ties with other jihadist groups and rebranded as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (JFS).

Two Turkish soldiers killed in northern Syria

Two Turkish soldiers have been killed and 15 others wounded in clashes with Islamic State (IS) militants in northern Syria.  The fighting took place around the town of al-Bab, which Turkish troops and Syrian rebels are trying to capture from IS.  On Wednesday Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim said the town is "besieged from every side", while Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said Turkey would push towards Raqqa after the al-Bab operation was complete.

Airstrikes kill 21 in Idlib

At least 21 people have been killed in airstrikes in the northern city of Idlib, according to local rescue workers.  Eight strikes carried out by suspected Russian jets hit the city's Kusur district on Tuesday. "We are still pulling bodies from the rubble," said Issam al Idlibi, a volunteer civil defense worker.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has put the death toll at 26.

Turkish airstrikes hit IS in northern al-Bab

Recent Turkish military airstrikes have targeted Islamic State (IS) militant positions near al-Bab. Approximately 21 IS militants have been captured or killed during the airstrikes within the last 24 hours. The Turkish military announced that the strikes had been conducted as part of the ongoing operation 'Euphrates Shield'. The operation has so far targeted over 250 IS positions, including militant hideouts, defensive fighting positions, shelters and buildings. Within the last 24 hours, 65 IS positions have been targeted in northern al-Bab and the Bzagah region.

Airstrikes cut off water supply, Raqqah

Airstrikes have allegedly cut off the main water supply line to Raqqah city. The group 'Raqqah is Being Slaughtered Silently' reported the incident, stating that the coalition conducted overnight airstrikes targeting bridges in the northern area of the city when a water supply line at Old bridge was hit and destroyed. Local residents have reportedly resorted to sourcing untreated water from the river itself. It has not been confirmed who the airstrikes were conducted by.

Dozens of militants killed in Turkish airstrikes

At least 47 Islamic State (IS) militants have been captured or killed in recent airstrikes carried out by the Turkish forces in al-Bab. The airstrikes destroyed 64 key IS positions near the northern al-Bab area - including headquarters, hideouts, defence posts, shelters and ammunition depots. Approximately 45 buildings were destroyed, as well as several vehicles containing explosives. 

Villages freed from IS in al-Bab

Dozens of villages have been freed from the control of Islamic State (IS) militants in the al-Bab Plateau. Officials of the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) confirmed the release of at least 32 villages and farms amid ongoing military operations in the countryside area, north-east of Aleppo. IS forces have reportedly started counter-attacks in attempts to recapture lost territory, however the SAA has stated that these attacks have mostly failed.

Airstrikes hit Red Crescent offices in Idlib

Airstrikes have hit Syrian Red Crescent offices in the north-western city of Idlib, wounding several staff members.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the director of the local branch was among those wounded in the strikes, which also caused extensive damage to the building.  It is not clear if Russian, Syrian or US jets carried out the strikes.

Turkey kill 18 militants in northern Syria

The Turkish military said 18 Islamic State (IS) militants have been killed in operations in northern Syria.  In a statement the army said 130 IS targets were shelled in the operations around the northern town of al-Bab over the past 24 hours.  Turkey launched Operation Euphrates Shield in late August to target both IS and Kurdish militants in northern Syria.

Turkish airstrikes kill 10 in al-Bab

Ten civilians have been killed in suspected Turkish airstrikes and shelling near the northern Syrian town of al-Bab.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the bombardment took place on Thursday.  Turkish forces have carried out dozens of strikes against Islamic State (IS) militants in recent weeks, and officials said they continue to take precautions to limit civilian casualties.

Rebel factions merge in Syria

Several rebel factions have joined the conservative Sunni group Ahrar al-Sham to counter an assault by Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (JFS) - formerly Nusra Front.  The factions include Alwiyat Suqour al-Sham, Kataib Thawar al-Sham, Jaish al-Mujahideen and Tajamo Fastaqim Kama Umirat, along with Jaish al-Islam's Idlib branch and al-Jabha al-Shamiya's west Aleppo branch.  The move comes after JFS launched a series of attacks on rebel groups in Idlib and Aleppo provinces since Tuesday.  On Wednesday JFS militants seized Idlib Central Prison after attacking rebels from the Suqour al-Sham Brigade.

Turkish soldier killed in al-Bab

A Turkish soldier has been killed and five others wounded in the northern al-Bab and Kabr al-Mukri regions of Syria.  Kerem Çalışkancı died during clashes with suspected Islamic State (IS) militants on Wednesday evening.  The wounded soldiers were transported to a hospital in the Turkish city of Kilis for treatment.  The Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) also said 206 IS targets had been targeted in airstrikes, with 23 militants "neutralized".

Five Turkish soldiers killed, nine wounded in bombing, al-Bab

Five Turkish soldiers have been killed and nine others have been wounded in a bombing carried out by militants of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in al-Bab. ISIS militants allegedly planted explosives in a vehicle, which was driven into the Suflaniyah area of al-Bab and detonated. The Turkish troops have been supporting the Syrian government rebels in their struggle against ISIS. 

Seven civilians killed in militant attacks, Deir Az Zor

At least seven civilians have been killed in rocket attacks carried out by militants of the Islamic State (IS). Residential areas in Deir Az Zor city were targeted by the IS forces, with fatalities thought to be reported from the al-Joura and al-Qussour neighbourhoods. No further casualties have been reported, however there are fears that scores more could be wounded. All travel to Syria has been strongly advised against whilst the violent conflict between the IS and the Syrian government continues.

Roman theatre detroyed in militant attacks, Palmyra

The historic Roman Tetrapylon theatre neat the entrance to Palmyra has allegedly been destroyed by militants of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It was announced today, that the theatre had apparently been destroyed on Tuesday 10 January amid ISIS bombings which are thought to have specifically targeted the historic monument. ISIS militants have previously targeted the 2,000-year-old Temple of Bel and the Arch of Victory as part of a campaign against the region's heritage. No civilian casualties have been reported. All travel to Palmrya and the rest of Syria has been strongly advised against due to the high risk of militant attack.

Dozens killed in clashes near Tayfur military airport

At least 30 people have been killed in clashes between militants of the Islamic State (IS) and government regime forces at Tayfur military airport in the Homs province. In recent months, IS militants have been attempting to cut off the regime's access to the airport - which is located between the towns of Palmyra and Homs. An estimated 18 IS militants were killed in the assault and 12 regime security personnel were also killed - seven of whom were allegedly killed by a suicide bomber. No civilian casualties have been reported and the regime has maintained control of the airport. All travel to Syria has been strongly advised against whilst the conflict between the IS forces and the government regime continues.

Dozens of militants 'neutralised' in Turkish military operations

At least 23 militants of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) have been 'neutralised' in Turkish military operations carried out over the last 24-hours in northern Syria. Operation 'Euphrates Shield' also hit 224 ISIL strategic targets - shelters, defence points, command and control facilities, and vehicles - in the al-Bab, Bzagah and Suflaniyah regions. The Turkish Army usually uses the term 'neutralised' to indicated targets have either been killed, captured or incapacitated. The 'neutralisation' of ISIL targets is undertaken by the Turkish Army in support of the Free Syrian Army fighters in their struggle to regain control of al-Bab from the ISIL militants. All travel to Syria has been strongly advised against.

Senior Hezbollah leader killed

A Senior Hezbollah leader, who has been identified as Commander Haaj Abu-Ali Nouah, has been killed in Syria. Details have not been released, however it has been confirmed that the commander was killed in the early morning of Friday 20 January. No additional information is available at the moment. All travel to Syria has been strongly advised against.

Turkish airstrikes target IS near al-Bab

Turkish airstrikes have targeted Islamic State (IS) militants near the northern Syrian town of al-Bab.  At least 19 militants were killed during the latest phase of operation Euphrates Shield, the Turkish military announced on Monday.  The military hit a total of 180 IS targets, including command centres, shelters and vehicles.  Meanwhile, the Free Syrian Army (FSA) are also continuing operations against IS in the area, with Special Task Forces attempting to seize the Suflaniyah and Kabr al-Mukri districts.

Shelling kills seven in Wadi Barada

Shelling by suspected government troops has killed at least seven people and wounded 20 others in the Wadi Barada valley, near Damascus.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said shells hit a banquet hall in the village of Deir Qanun on Sunday.  Meanwhile the Islamic State (IS) launched an assault on the regime-controlled city of Deir el-Zour on Saturday, killing 12 government soldiers and two civilians.  Around 20 IS militants also died in the clashes, according to SOHR.

Rockets hit Damascus airbase

The Syrian regime has warned of repercussions against Israel after rockets hit a military airbase near the capital, Damascus.  “At 03:00 a.m., the Israeli enemy fired several surface-to-surface missiles from inside occupied territory,” the state news agency SANA said.  The rockets caused a large fire but no casualties were reported.

Suicide blast kills eight in Damascus

At least eight people have been killed in a suicide bomb attack in the Syrian capital, Damascus.  The device exploded in the south-west Kafr Sousa district of the city late on Sunday.  There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the attack, which occurred despite a ceasefire brokered by Turkey and Russia.

Government jets target rebels in northern Syria

The Syrian government has targeted rebel groups in northern Syria.  Airstrikes targeted militants from  Fateh al-Sham Front in Atarib and Khan al-Assal in Aleppo province, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  There have not been any confirmation of casualties.  The strikes come as Russia confirmed peace talks will be held in Kazakhstan's capital, Astana, on 23 January.

US troops kill 25 IS fighters in Deir Az Zor

US special forces have killed at least 25 Islamic State (IS) fighters during operations in Deir Az Zor province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the raids were carried out in the village of al-Kubar on Sunday.  "The landing forces cut off the road linking between the Kabr village and the Jazra town by the establishment of checkpoints and then they raided the water plant in the Kabr where they arrested a number of Daesh fighters," Deir Ezzor 24 reported.  The Pentagon has not confirmed the reports.

Dozens killed in Azaz bombing

At least 48 people have been killed and scores more wounded in a truck bombing in the northern Syrian town of Azaz.  The device exploded outside a courthouse in the town, which is seven kilometres from the Turkish border, on Saturday.  Azaz is a stronghold of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and several rebels were among the victims of the attack.  Islamic State (IS) have attempted to recapture the town, which it originally held in 2013, but there has not been any claim of responsibility for the latest blast.

Turkish military targets IS in northern Syria

The Turkish military has killed at least 32 Islamic State (IS) militants in operations in northern Syria.  The army said 21 strikes were carried out on IS targets in al-Bab and Bzagah over the last 24 hours.  On Friday the Turkish General Staff said 1,300 IS militants have been killed since Operation Euphrates Shield was launched in August.

Nine dead in Jableh blast

At least nine people have been killed and 25 others wounded in a bombing in the coastal city of Jablah in Latakia province.  Syrian state TV reported that the blast was caused by a suicide bomber.  The attack in the government-held town comes despite a ceasefire between the regime and the majority of rebel groups; although it does not include the Islamic State (IS) who have carried out previous attacks in Jableh.

Airstrikes kill 25 jihadists in Idlib province

At least 25 people have been killed in a series of airstrikes in the northern province of Idlib.  The strikes targeted a base used by Jabhat Fateh al-Sham - formerly known as the Nusra Front - in a remote part of the province.  "The headquarters targeted by the international coalition a short time ago are a main headquarters for that area and contains a number branch offices, leading to the killing of the brothers," said Abu Anas al-Shami, a Jabhat Fateh al-Sham spokesman.

Rebels claim ceasefire violations in Syria

Syria's main rebel groups claim that the government has violated the recently agreed nationwide ceasefire.  The Free Syrian Army, the Army of Conquest and other anti-government groups said they were freezing their participation in peace talks due to take place in Kazakhstan later this month.  The statement said the main violations were in an area north-west of Damascus and in the rebel-held Wadi Barada valley.

Nationwide ceasefire underway in Syria

A nationwide ceasefire has begun in Syria and is largely holding, despite reports of isolated clashes.  The agreement, which was brokered by Russia and Turkey, includes the majority of rebel factions but does not include the Islamic State (IS) or the YPG militia.  On Friday government forces clashed with rebels north-west of Damascus, while fighting has also been reported in the northern Hama province.

Syrian army announces recapture of Aleppo

The Syrian army has announced that it has fully recaptured the northern city of Aleppo, four years after it was seized by rebels.  In a statement, the army said it had "returned security to Aleppo," adding that Iran and Russia both deserve credit for the military victory.  The UN said that more than 30,000 rebels and civilians have been evacuated from the city over the last week.

Turkish soldiers killed in northern Syria

At least 14 Turkish soldiers have been killed and more than 30 others wounded in clashes with Islamic State (IS) militants in northern Syria.  The clashes took place in the town of al-Bab during the Turkish military's Euphrates Shield operation.  The army said 138 IS militants were killed in the clashes on Wednesday.

Evacuations resume in eastern Aleppo

Evacuations have resumed from eastern Aleppo, with more than 50 buses and ambulances having left rebel-held areas on Monday morning.  The operation has been disrupted several times over the last week, including on Sunday when armed men set fire to five buses due to transport people from the villages of Foah and Kefraya in Idlib province.  Meanwhile, the UN Security Council are expected to agree a deal for monitors to be sent to observe the operation.

One killed, three wounded in police station suicide bombing, Damascus

One child bomber has been killed, and three police officers have been wounded in a suicide bombing incident at Midan Police Station in the al-Midan district of Damascus. The suicide bomber has been identified as a seven-year-old girl who reportedly entered the station wearing an explosive vest. It remains unknown whether the child was forced to carry out the suicide bombing, or if she chose to engage in the act of terrorism.

Evacuation of Aleppo suspended

The evacuation of civilians and rebels from Aleppo has been suspended amid accusations of ceasefire violation. The Russian forces have declared the evacuation efforts as 'completed', however, only 6,000 people have been evacuated from the city - leaving at least 50,000 others trapped in Aleppo. The Syrian Army has been accused by the Russian forces as having violated an agreed ceasefire, by violently targeting isolated incidents of resistance.

Rebels evacuated from eastern Aleppo

At least 1,000 people have been evacuated from eastern Aleppo as a delayed three-day ceasefire begins in the war-torn city.  More than 40 buses and other vehicles have been transporting rebels and their families from the al-Amiriyah district.  Syrian state TV said 4,000 people would be evacuated from the city on Thursday, while the Russian Centre for the Reconciliation of Opposing Sides in Syria said the Syrian government had guaranteed the safety of all individuals choosing to leave.  The operation was due to begin on Wednesday but the plans were scuppered by heavy fighting.

Turkish jets target IS in northern Syria

Turkish planes have carried out a series of airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) militants in northern Syria.  The Turkish military said 20 militants were killed and seven buildings were destroyed in the strikes, which are part of operation 'Euphrates Shield'.  No detail was given on the exact location of the strikes.

Fighting continues in Aleppo despite ceasefire

Fighting continues to be reported in the northern city of Aleppo, despite Russia declaring a ceasefire agreement with rebel groups on Tuesday.  The Russian Defense Ministry said rebels broke the agreement and “resumed the hostilities” at dawn, while activists said the last few remaining rebel-held districts were being shelled by regime forces.  Thousands of civilians and rebel fighters were due to be evacuated from the city but the continued fighting has forced the operation to be delayed, with local media reporting that buses have returned to their depots.

Civilians shot dead by regime troops in Aleppo

At least 82 civilians have been shot dead by pro-regime forces in the besieged northern city of Aleppo, according to the UN. Human Rights spokesman Rupert Colville said there had been a "complete meltdown of humanity in Aleppo," with reports that 11 women and 13 children were among the victims.  The regime now controls the vast majority of the city, and thousands of people are trapped in the few remaining rebel-held districts.  A military source told Reuters that the army is in the "last moments before declaring victory".

Army seizes major Aleppo district from rebels

Syrian government troops have seized a major district in eastern Aleppo from rebel fighters.  Free Syrian Army (FSA) sources said Sheikh Saeed fell to the regime on Monday, a day after the government captured al-Madi. "Syrian regime forces are now in control of 90 percent" of the one-time rebel areas in Aleppo's east, said the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR).  Earlier the Russian reconciliation centre claimed that more than 13,000 civilians were evacuated from rebel-held areas of the city.

IS recaptures ancient city of Palmyra

The Islamic State (IS) jihadist group has recaptured the ancient city of Palmyra, despite dozens of Russian airstrikes aimed at halting the militants advance.  Around 4,000 IS fighters from Raqqa and Deir Az-zor carried out an offensive to retake the city, which it lost in March.  The group destroyed a number of ancient sites and artefacts during the previous 10 months that it held the city.  “The catastrophe has happened, I am in absolute shock,” said Maamoun Abdulkarim, Syria’s director of antiquities.  “I am losing hope, it looks like we have lost the city.”

Russian airstrikes halt IS advance on Palmyra

Russian airstrikes have pushed Islamic State (IS) militants out of the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, hours after they tried to retake it.  Government troops were also deployed to the city to join the operation, diverting resources from the northern assault on Aleppo.  “Russian air force planes carried out 64 airstrikes against the positions, convoys and advancing reserves of militants,” a Russian defence ministry statement said. IS seized Palmyra in 2015 but were forced out in March.

Hospital patients evacuated from eastern Aleppo

Around 150 patients have been evacuated from the Old City of eastern Aleppo.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said staff from the Red Cross and the Syrian Arab Red Crescent (SARC) managed to reach trapped civilians on Thursday.  "These patients and civilians had been trapped in the area for days because of heavy clashes nearby and as the front line kept drawing closer," said chief ICRC delegation in Syria, Marianne Gasser.  Eleven civilians died before aid workers could reach them.

IS militants kill Syrian troops in Homs

Islamic State (IS) militants have killed at least 26 Syrian government troops in the central province of Homs.  Gunmen carried out simultaneous attacks near the Mahr and Shaar oil and gas fields on Thursday. "IS was able to take control of seven checkpoints and other positions held by government forces, who were forced to withdraw amid fierce clashes," said Rami Abdel-Rahman, director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  

Turkish soldier killed in northern Syria

A Turkish soldier has been killed and six others wounded in a car bomb attack in northern Syria.  The blast hit near the town of al-Bab, around 25km from the Turkish border, on Wednesday.  Turkish jets have been carrying out airstrikes on the Islamic State-held town, recently hitting 12 targets and killing 23 suspected militants.

Airstrikes target Mezzeh Military Airport

Airstrikes have targeted the Syrian Air Force installation at Mezzeh Military Airport in Damascus. The airstrikes were delivered from jets which have been suspected to belong to the Israeli Army. Explosions have also been reported close to the president's palace, which is near to the military air base. No casualties have been reported so far, however emergency vehicles were allegedly spotted near the airport - indicating the explosions may have wounded or killed some civilians.

Two Turkish soldiers killed in bombing, al-Bab

Two Turkish soldiers have been killed and another has been wounded in a bombing incident near al-Bab - a town held by the Islamic State (IS) in northern Syria. The car-bomb attack came as part of IS resistance to Syrian rebels, assisted by Turkish troops, attempts to push Kurdish and IS forces out of the city.

Six killed, nine wounded in roadside bombing, al-Hasaka

Six al-Rmeilan Oil field workers have been killed and nine others have been wounded in a roadside bombing in the al-Hasaka province, The oil field workers had been travelling between al-Qahtaniyeh town and Tawil village when their vehicle was struck by the roadside bomb. It is thought that militants had attempted to target an al-Rmeilan Oil Field Directorate, to which the targeted vehicle was affiliated. All travel to Syria has been strongly advised against since the escalation of the civil war in 2011.

Russian colonel killed by opposition, Aleppo

Russian military adviser, Colonel Ruslan Galitsky, has been killed by shelling in an attack carried out by the so-called 'Moderate Opposition' militant group in the residential district of Aleppo. The Russian Defence Ministry has confirmed that Col. Galitsky died in hospital after being severely wounded in the attack. Aleppo has become increasingly dangerous since civil war broke out in 2011 - as a result of the spreading conflict, all travel to Syria has been strongly advised against.

Dozens of civilians killed in airstrikes, Idlib and Aleppo

At least 29 civilians have been killed and dozens more have been wounded in airstrikes carried out by the Assad regime over Idlib and Aleppo. City officials have confirmed the deaths of 27 civilians in Assad-led airstrikes over the residential areas of Ma'arrat Misrin and Ma'arrat Nassan in Idlib, and the deaths of two more civilians in Assad-led airstrikes over a public market in the Atarib neighbourhood of Aleppo. Dozens of civilians have also been wounded in the attacks - at least 15 civilians have been identified so far, with precise figures expected to rise as reports are confirmed. Almost 800 civilians have been killed and around 2,500 civilians have been wounded in attacks led by the Assad regime since mid-November. The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office continues to advise travellers to avoid visits to the country, which has been dominated by violent war since 2011.

US-led airstrikes against the Islamic State

The US and coalition forces have conducted 21 airstrikes against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Eleven airstrikes have been conducted in Syria, targeting two tactical units, two fighting positions and various ISIS assets in: Abu Kamal, Ayn Isa, Dayr Az Zawr, Manjib, Raqqah and Shaddadi. Ten more airstrikes have been conducted in Iraq, targeting seven tactical positions, 31 supply routes and various ISIS assets in: Asad, Bashir, Beiji, Mosul, Qayyarah and Tal Afar. No civilian casualties have been reported and travellers have been advised to avoid targeted areas where possible.

Russia and China veto UN ceasefire in Aleppo

Russia and China have vetoed a UN Security Council resolution calling for a ceasefire in the northern city of Aleppo.  Venezuela also rejected the resolution during the vote on Monday, which proposed a seven-day truce in the besieged city.  Government forces have recaptured large parts of the east of the city from rebel fighters, leaving the al-Shaar district completely surrounded by regime troops.  "Karm al-Jabal and al-Shaar are considered fallen," an official with the Jabha Shamiya group told Reuters.

Airstrikes kill dozens in Idlib province

At least 46 civilians have been killed in suspected Russian airstrikes in the north-western Idlib province, according to local monitors.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes had targeted the villages of Kafr Nabal and Maarat al-Numan on Sunday.  Further strikes were also reported in al-Naqir and  al-Tamanah, where a barrel bomb killed six children.

Foreign volunteers killed in northern Syria

Two foreign volunteers have been killed while fighting alongside the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) in northern Syria.  The Manbij Military Council said US national Michael Israel and German Anton Leschek died in Turkish airstrikes on 24 November.  The SDF is largely made up of fighters from the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), who have been fighting to reclaim territory from Islamic State (IS) across northern Syria.

Israeli airstrikes hit near Damascus

Israeli airstrikes hit a target near Damascus early on Wednesday morning, according to Syrian state TV.  "The air force of the Israeli enemy today launched two missiles from Lebanese airspace," it said, adding that they hit the Sabbura area west of Damascus.  The Israeli military declined to comment on the reports.

Civilians killed in Aleppo shelling

At least 45 civilians have been killed in shelling in eastern Aleppo, according to civil defence officials.  Ibrahim Abu Laith said regime forces hit a group of refugees in the rebel-held Jib al-Quebeh neighbourhood on Wednesday.  On Tuesday the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said 20,000 people had fled the city in the last few days, while the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights put the figure at 50,000.

Two Turkish soldiers missing in Syria

Two Turkish soldiers deployed in northern Syria have gone missing, the Turkish military said in a statement.  The army lost contact with the pair at 15:30 local time on Tuesday near the strategic town of al-Bab.  The Islamic State (IS) jihadist group said it had captured the two soldiers in the village of al-Dana.  The claims, made via its Amaq news agency, have not been confirmed by Turkish officials.

Thousands flee Aleppo as heavy fighting continues

An estimated 16,000 civilians have fled the besieged northern city of Aleppo as government forces continue the assault on rebel-held areas of the city.  Heavy fighting has been reported in the south-east of the city, including the Aziza district where a large mobilization of pro-government forces was reported on Monday evening.  At least 28 people have been killed in the latest fighting, including 12 in the Shaar district and 10 in Bab al-Nairab.

Government forces seize key areas of eastern Aleppo

Syrian government forces have captured key areas of eastern Aleppo from rebel groups, forcing thousands of civilians to flee the city and splitting rebel-held areas in two.  The army captured the north-eastern Sakhour, Haydariya and Sheikh Khodr districts on Monday, while Kurdish forces also captured the Sheikh Fares district.  "The rebels have lost control of all the neighbourhoods in the north of east Aleppo, and this is their worst defeat since they seized half the city in 2012," said Rami Abdel Rahman, director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 

Aid workers warn of humanitarian crisis in Aleppo

The head of the Syria Civil Defence has warned that the residents of Aleppo have fewer than 10 days of supplies before they face starvation.  "Doctors and the rescue workers in Aleppo are just using what's left of the equipment after bombardments to do whatever they can do," Raed Al Saleh told Reuters.  He added that without fuel and first aid supplies the aid workers - also known as the White Helmets - would be unable to use ambulances to reach wounded civilians.

US soldier killed in Syria blast

A US soldier has been killed by an improvised explosive device (IED) in northern Syria.  The unnamed soldier was fighting Islamic State (IS) militants in Ayn Isaa, north of Raqqa, when he died.  It is the first death of a US serviceman since they deployed special forces in Syria in October, 2015.

Turkish soldier killed in IS clashes in northern Syria

A Turkish soldier has been killed and three others wounded in clashes with Islamic State (IS) militants in northern Syria.  Friday's announcement came a day after four Turkish troops died in an airstrike near al-Bab, where Turkish-backed rebels are carrying out a major offensive against IS.  A total of 17 Turkish soldiers have now been killed since Ankara deployed troops across the border in late August.

Syrian rebels in Aleppo agree to UN aid plan

Syrian rebels in the besieged northern city of Aleppo have agreed to a UN plan for aid delivery and medical evacuations.  However, the plan is still awaiting the approval of the Russian and Syrian governments, who will both need to suspend military operations in the city for the plan to come into effect.  "We have verbal support also from the Russian Federation on our four-point plan. We need written support and we need unconditional support also from Russia and we are waiting still for the answer from the government of Syria," said humanitarian adviser Jan Egeland.

Three Turkish soldiers killed in al-Bab

Three Turkish soldiers have been killed and 10 others wounded in an attack near the northern Syrian city of al-Bab.  "In the air strike assessed to have been by Syrian regime forces, three of our heroic soldiers were killed and 10 soldiers wounded, one seriously," the Turkish military said in a statement.  The troops were supporting Free Syrian Army (FSA) fighters as part of the Euphrates Shield Operation when they were killed.  The wounded soldiers were transferred across the border to hospitals in Gaziantep province.

Senior al-Qaeda leader killed in US airstrike

Senior al-Qaeda leader, Abou Afghan al-Masri, has reportedly been killed in a series of US airstrikes over Iraq and Syria. The Pentagon confirmed that a US drone strike targeted and killed al-Masri near Sarmadā in the north-west of Syria.

Dozens of joint forces airstrikes conducted

Twenty-four airstrikes have been conducted by the joint forces, against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve has confirmed that US and coalition forces conducted 13 airstrikes in Syria and 11 airstrikes in Iraq. In Syria, Abu Kamal, Raqqah, Ayn Isa, and Manbij have been strategically targeted. In Iraq, Kisik, Mosul, Qaim, and Bayji have been struck. No casualties have been reported. The strikes were conducted as part of Operation Inherent Resolve: the mission to eliminate the ISIS threat from Iraq and Syria.

Turkish jets carry out al-Bab strikes

Turkish warplanes have resumed airstrikes on Islamic State (IS) positions around the north-western city of al-Bab, following a week-long pause.  Positions in Bzaghah, Qabasin, Suflaniyah and the north of al-Bab were hit in the strikes, with the Turkish military claiming 17 IS targets were destroyed.  The strikes came a day after a Turkish soldier was killed and three others wounded near al-Bab.  The wounded soldiers were evacuated across the border to Turkey's Gaziantep province for treatment.

Car bomb kills 10 near Turkish border

At least 10 people were killed and dozens more wounded when a car bomb exploded near the Turkish border on Thursday.  The blast targeted the political office of the Nour al-Din al-Zinki rebel group in the town of Azaz.  The group's spokesman, Yasser al-Yousef, said the death toll was 25 but this has not been confirmed.  The incident comes as the Syrian regime continues its heavy bombardment of nearby Aleppo, with activists claiming 150 people have now been killed in the city since bombing resumed on Tuesday.

Scores dead in Aleppo bombardment

More than 80 people have been killed in the besieged northern city of Aleppo after the Syrian government carried out dozens of airstrikes on rebel-held districts.  The Bayan Children's Hospital was hit during the strikes on al-Shaar, al-Sukkari, al-Sakhour and Karam al-Beik neighbourhoods. The heavy bombardment resumed on Tuesday after a three week suspension to allow civilians to leave the city; however, around 250,000 are still trapped in the city and no supplies have reached them since August.

Airstrikes hit eastern districts of Aleppo

Airstrikes have resumed on rebel-held districts of eastern Aleppo.  Haidariya, Masakin Hanano and Sheikh Faris were all hit by the strikes, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which come after a three week pause to allow civilians to leave the city.  A hospital in the village of Awaijel, west of Aleppo, has also been hit, killing at least one person. Residents in Aleppo received text messages from the regime on Sunday warning that strikes would resume.

Turkish jets target al-Bab

Turkish jets carried out a series of airstrikes on the al-Bab area of northern Syria on Sunday.  The Turkish military said 15 targets were hit, many of them Islamic State (IS) positions, while adding that nine militants were killed and 52 others wounded.  The Free Syrian Army (FSA) are carrying out ground operations in the area and are reported to be close to retaking al-Bab from IS.  Meanwhile more than 5,000 civilians were displaced last week by fighting in the Raqqa Governorate, according to local rights groups.

Twenty civilians dead in US airstrikes on Raqqa

At least 20 civilians have been killed in US-led coalition airstrikes near the northern city of Raqqa, according to activists.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said six women and a child were among the dead in al-Heisha, while the Raqqa is being Silently Slaughtered group put the death toll at 23.  “The Coalition takes all allegations of civilian casualties seriously and will further investigate this report,” a spokesperson for the coalition said. 

Syrian rebels launch Raqqa assault

US-backed rebel fighters have launched a major assault on the northern Syrian city of Raqqa.  The Syria Democratic Forces (SDF) - comprised of Kurdish and Arab militias - aims to retake the city from the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group. "The major battle to liberate Raqqa and its surroundings has begun," a spokesperson for the SDF said in Ain Issa, around 50km north of Raqqa.

Russian helicopter shot down in Hama

A Russian helicopter has been shot down by rebel in Syria's Hama province.  Russia's defence ministry said the the crew managed to safely escape the wreckage in Huwaysis on Thursday.  "The helicopter sustained damage which prevented it from returning to the home air base. The crew was not hurt and was swiftly returned to Hmeimin air base by a search-and-rescue helicopter," said the defence ministry in a statement.

Brief ceasefire begins in Aleppo

Russian and Syrian forces have started a 10-hour "humanitarian pause" to allow civilians to leave besieged eastern districts of the city.  The truce started at 09:00 local time, although fighting has continued in some parts of the city, while around 250,000 people still remain trapped.  On Thursday rebel rocket fire killed 12 people and wounded scores more in the western districts of the city, including the Halab al-Jadida area.

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 31 October, officials of the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces have carried out seven new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across the country. The strikes were conducted near Shaddadi, Dayr Az Zawr and Abu Kamal. They destroyed four IS tactical units, two fighting positions, two vehicles, one command-and-control centre, one oil drilling rig and one oil wellhead. One supply route was also heavily damaged and an undisclosed number of IS militants were killed. 

Russian Embassy shelled in Damascus

On 28 October, the Russian Embassy in Damascus came under mortar fire from the Jobar area, which is controlled by anti-government forces. There were no casualties and the embassy reportedly sustained material damage. One of the shells hit near the main entrance of the embassy building and the second hit outside the embassy perimeter fence. The Russian Foreign Ministry has condemned "one more terrorist attack against the Russian diplomatic mission and has demanded the implementation of anti-terror resolutions of the UN Security Council and the cessation of arms supplies to terrorists and their financing."

At least thirty-five killed in airstrike at school in Idlib

On 26 October, at least 35 people, mostly children, were killed by an air strike on a school in Idlib, north-western Syria. The UN demanded a full investigation into the attack, for which the US has blamed the Syrian or the Russian government. Russia denied involvement in the attack that took place in the village of Hass, a known Islamic State (IS) stronghold. According to the UNICEF, five Syrian schools were targeted in the last two weeks.

Rebels launch assault on Aleppo

Syrian rebels have announced a major offensive in the besieged northern city of Aleppo.  At least 15 people have been killed after rebels fired hundreds of missiles into the west of the city, including several children killed at a school in the Shahaba area.  "All the revolutionary factions, without exception, are participating in the battle," the military spokesman for the Fastaqim faction told the AP news agency.  The city has been divided between rebel and government forces for several years, and in recent months the regime and Syrian warplanes have intensified airstrikes on the city.

Turkish-backed rebels killed in Syrian airstrikes in Ahktarin

On 26 October, Syrian warplanes targeted Turkish-backed rebels in Akhtarin, 5km southeast of Dabiq, northern Aleppo province. Two rebels were reportedly killed in the strikes and another five were wounded. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 25 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out three new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across the country. The strikes were conducted near Abu Kamal and Marea. They destroyed one IS tactical unit, two fighting positions, one mortar system and one vehicle. An undisclosed number of IS militants were also killed in the strikes.

Civilians killed in Idlib airstrikes

At least 16 people have been killed in airstrikes by either the Syrian regime or Russia in the northern Idlib province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a series of strikes hit Khan Sheikhun and Kafr Takharim on Monday.  The province is controlled by an alliance of rebels groups known as the Army of Conquest, which includes Fateh al-Sham Front who recently changed their name from the Nusra Front.

Russia extends truce in Aleppo by another 24 hours

On 20 October, the Russian government extended the humanitarian pause in Aleppo by another 24 hours. The truce will last until 19:00 local time (16:00 GMT) on 21 October. Civilians have been encouraged to leave the war zones through six humanitarian corridors, with another two corridors set up for militants willing to surrender. The extension of the ceasefire has been supported by the Syrian government.

Three Russian officers wounded in Aleppo

On 20 October, three Russian military officers were wounded when militants opened fire on a humanitarian corridor leading from Aleppo, near the El-Masharka government checkpoint. The Russian Center for Reconciliation has stated that "their lives are out of danger." The attack came on the first day of a Russian-backed humanitarian pause.

Two killed and thirteen wounded in car bomb attack in Azaz, Aleppo province

On 20 October, a car bomb attack was reported in Azaz, Aleppo province. The booby-trapped vehicle detonated at the eastern entrance of the rebel-held city, killing two people and wounding 13 others. No one has yet claimed responsibility for the attack.

Russia and Syrian military announce eight-hour ceasefire in Aleppo

The Russian and Syrian militaries have announced that they will hold an 8-hour ceasefire, described as a "humanitarian pause," on 20 October. Russian and Syrian forces will refrain from any military activity between 08:00 and 16:00 local time to allow safe passage to civilians and the withdrawal of militants from the city. Two corridors will be created for the withdrawal of rebel forces and six humanitarian corridors will be created for the safe evacuation of civilians. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 16 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out 13 new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across the country. The strikes were conducted near Abu Kamal, Dayr Az Zawr, Raqqah, Manbij, Palmyra and Marea. They destroyed six IS tactical units, one fighting position, two vehicles and one machine gun. Five supply routes were heavily damaged and an undisclosed number of IS militants were killed. 

Car boming reported in southern Damascus

On 17 October, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that a car bomb exploded in the southern Sayyeda Zeinab district of Damascus, home to an important Shia shrine. Initial reports indicated that casualties were caused by the bomb, although Hezbollah's Al Manar TV denied that any blast took place and no reports have appeared on Syrian state media.

Thirteen killed in airstrikes on Aleppo

On 17 October, at least 13 people were killed in airstrikes on rebel-held areas of eastern Aleppo. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that the airstrikes hit the Marjeh neighbourhood and that five children were among the casualties. 11 of the victims are believed to have the same family name of Qabs and ranged in age from a month-and-a-half-old girl to a 25-year-old man.

At least 20 killed in car bomb attack in Bab al Salam

On 13 October, at least 20 people were killed in a car bomb attack near the Bab al Salam crossing, along the Turkish-Syrian border. Dozens more are reported to have been wounded in the attack and have been taken to a nearby hospital. Turkish authorities have blamed the attack on the checkpoint, manned by the Free Syrian Army, on Islamic State (IS) militants. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 13 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out nine new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across the country. The strikes occurred near Abu Kamal, Dayr Az Zawr, Ayn Isa and Marea. They destroyed four IS tactical units, seven fighting positions, two vehicles, five oil well heads and four oil collection tanks. One supply route was damaged and an undisclosed number of IS fighters were killed in the strikes. 

Hundreds of rebels leave Damascus

On 13 October, hundreds of rebels and their families left two rebel-held towns on the outskirts of Damascus as part of a deal with the Syrian government. The evacuation occurred after the army gave community leaders in Qudsseya and Al-Hama an ultimatum to eject hundreds of rebel fighters out of the towns or face wide-scale operations. 400 rebels and their families were evacuated from the towns on 14 buses. 

Four children killed in shelling in Aleppo

On 13 October, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that at least four children were killed when shells landed near a school in the al-Suleimaniya area. The Syrian regime confirmed the incident in government-held territory, stating that the shells were fired by terrorist elements.

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 12 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out 11 airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across Syria. The strikes were conducted near Abu Kamal, Raqqah, Dayr Az Zawr, Manbij and Marea. They destroyed seven tactical units, six vehicles, one vehicle bomb, 11 oil tanker trucks, six oil well heads, three fighting positions, one front-end loader and one crane. An undisclosed number of IS fighters were killed in the strikes. 

Islamic State attacks kills 11 civilians near Manbij

On 11 October, two Islamic State (IS) suicide attacks killed 11 people in Manbij, northern Syria. The attacks in the villages of al-Mashi and al-Dandanah both targeted civilians. At least 26 people have been wounded in the attacks and have been taken to hospitals in Kobane and Qamishli for treatment. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 11 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out eight new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets across Syria. The airstrikes were carried out near Abu Kamal, Hawl, Dayr Az Zayr and Manbij. The strikes destroyed four tactical units, seven fighting positions, two vehicles, three oil well heads and one oil tanker. Three supply routes were heavily damaged and an undisclosed number of IS militants were killed. 

Airstrikes resume in Aleppo

On 11 October, Russian planes resumed air strikes on rebel-held districts of Aleppo, killing at least 25 people. The bombing comes after a temporarily lull called by the Syrian government to allow civilians to leave rebel-held areas. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that Russian war planes had dropped bunker-busting bombs on Aleppo, with children reportedly among those killed. Some of the most intense attacks were on the Bustan al-Qasr and Fardos neighbourhoods near the citadel, which is near the front line between rebels and government troops. 

Turkish-backed rebels capture 14 villages around Dabiq

On 10 October, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that, in the past 24 hours, Turkish-backed rebel forces had recaptured 14 villages from Islamic State (IS) forces around Dabiq. Braghidah, al-Bul, Jazir, Sheikh Rih, Kafrghan, Ghazal, Yahmoul, al-Adiyyah, al-Toqli, Shwirin, Tal Hussein, Mrighel, Rael, and Fairuziyyah are all villagers that were previously under IS control. Rebel units are reportedly advancing towards Dabiq, with support from Turkish tanks and airstrikes. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 8 October, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces carried out 13 airstrikes in Syria in the previous 24 hours. The strikes were carried out near Abu Kamal, Al Hawl, Al Shadaddi, Ar Raqqah, Ayn Isa, Dayr Az Zawr and Mara'a. The airstrikes destroyed seven fighting positions, ten tactical units, five vehicles, a mortar system, an oil well head and two oil pump jacks. Six supply routes were also heavily damaged in the strikes. 

Bomb kills 25 Turkish-backed rebels

On 6 October, a bomb planted by the Islamic State (IS) at a Syria-Turkey border crossing killed 25 people, most of them Turkish-backed Syrian rebels, and wounded dozens more. The attack, on the Syrian side of the Atmeh crossing in Idlib province, west of Aleppo, targeted rebels fighting against IS with military support from Turkey. IS claimed responsibility for the attack in an online statement. Sheikh Khaled al-Sayyed, the head of the top judicial body in rebel-held eastern Aleppo, and a judge who worked with him were among those killed in the blast. 

France and Spain draft Aleppo truce resolution

France and Spain are attempting to get the United Nations Security Council to agree on a resolution seeking a truce in Aleppo. The draft text calls for a UN-sponsored truce monitor and an end to all fighting and military flights over Syria. Parties who fail to comply with the truce could face "further measures." Russia immediately questioned the proposal and grounding of flights, claiming that it was unlikely to bring peace. The Russian Ambassador to the UN has said that Russia could have a resolution that would be a more balanced proposal, if other parties were serious about conforming to it. 

Twenty-three Islamic State militants killed in clashes with Turkish forces

On 5 October, 23 Islamic State (IS) fighters were killed in clashes with Turkish forces in Ziyara, northern Syria. One Turkish soldier was also killed in the fighting and three others were wounded. The clashes broke out when IS militants attempted to infiltrate the area. Turkish military sources state that 75 IS targets have also been shelled 221 times. 

Five killed and twenty wounded in shelling in Aleppo

On 4 October, rebel shelling of government-held areas of Aleppo killed five people and wounded more than 20. No more details have been released. 

Thirty-two killed in suicide attack on wedding in Hasakeh province

On 3 October, a suicide bomber killed 32 people after detonating his device at a wedding ceremony in the village of Tall Tawil in Hasakeh province. At least 100 others were wounded in the attack. The Islamic State (IS) said in a statement that one of its fighters had fired on a "large gathering" of Kurdish fighters near Hasakeh city before blowing himself up. The statement did not mention a wedding, but said that 40 people had been killed. The bride was uninjured and the groom sustained light injuries. 

Key Al-Qaeda figure killed in drone strike near Idlib

On 3 October, a US drone strike killed a senior Al Qaeda leader near Idlib. Sheikh Abu al Faraj al Masri of the Jabhat Fateh al Sham militant group, formerly al Nusra Front, was killed when the vehicle he was travelling in was hit by a missile from the drone. The US Defense Department released a statement saying that Masri was the target of a US strike in the area and that they are "still assessing the result of the strike."

Russian Embassy shelled in Damascus

On 3 October, the Russian embassy in Damascus was shelled from areas of the city controlled by the al-Nusra Front and Faylaq al-Rahman militant groups. Mortar shells exploded on the embassy area near the residential department and more shells landed just outside the embassy grounds. The diplomatic mission sustained material damage but the Russian Foreign Ministry has reported that no one was injured in the attack. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 3 October, US officials of the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out 20 new airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) targets in the country. The strikes took place near Abu Kamal, Shadaddi, Raqqah, Dayr Az Zawr, Manbij and Marea. They destroyed seven tactical units, four fighting positions, seven oil storage tanks, four oil well heads, two oil pump jacks, two oil tanker trucks, two vehicles, two vehicle bombs and one machine gun. They also heavily damaged eight supply routes and killed an undisclosed number of IS fighters. 

Two killed and twelve wounded in double suicide bombing in Hama

On 3 October, two people were killed and 12 others were wounded when at least two suicide bombers attacked the Assi Square in the centre of Hama. The attackers struck about 15 minutes apart. The attacks come as a coalition of rebels and jihadists advance closer to the government-controlled city. 

Syrian rebels to reach Islamic State-occupied Dabiq in the next 48 hours

On 3 October, Ahmed Osman, commander of the Sultan Murad militia which forms part of the Free Syrian Army (FSA), stated that the FSA will reach the village of Dabiq within 48 hours. The village is held by Islamic State (IS) militants and is the site of an apocalyptic prophecy central to the group's ideology. However, he warned that IS have heavily mined the surrounding area, making the FSA's advance painstakingly slow, signifying the importance placed on the village by IS. They believe it will be the place where a final battle will take place between Muslims and infidels, heralding Doomsday. The US-led coalition is actively supporting the advance against the village, and believes that taking Dabiq could reduce the Islamic State's morale before assaults on Mosul and Raqqa.

Fifteen Turkish-backed rebels killed in Syria

On 3 October, the Turkish military reported that clashes in the last 24 hours have killed 15 Turkish-backed rebels in northern Syria. The rebels died fighting Islamic State (IS) militants after launching a cross-border incursion into Syria on 24 August, dubbed "Operation Euphrates Shield."

Regime forces advance in Aleppo

On 30 September, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) stated that regime forces had made significant advances in the north of Aleppo, seizing control of the Handarat refugee camp. Rebel sources have denied this claim and stated that clashes between rebel forces and government troops are still ongoing in the area. 

German journalist escapes captivity with baby

On 29 September, freelance journalist Janina Findeisen escaped captivity in Syria with her baby. She was captured in October 2015 and gave birth in December. She believes she was captured by a faction within the Islamist Nusra Front, recently renamed to Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (JFS), which reportedly demanded a £4.3 million ransom for her release. JFS denies holding her hostage, claiming that they had freed her. The 27-year-old journalist and her baby are now in Turkey under the care of German consular officials and members of the German federal police. Her return home is being organised by the German embassy in Ankara. The German government does not pay ransom demands for hostages, and it is unclear whether any money was paid in this case. 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 29 September, officials of the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces carried out eight airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) forces near Abu Kamal, Raqqah, Marea, Manbij and Dayr Az Zawr. The strikes destroyed two tactical units, one fighting position, one mortar position, two oil well heads and three oil tanker trucks. They also heavily damaged three supply routes. 

Syrian rebels receive surface-to-surface rockets from foreign states

On 28 September, Colonel Fares al-Bayoush, a Syrian rebel commander, confirmed that rebel groups had taken delivery of Grad surface-to-surface rockets from foreign states. They were delivered in response to a major Russian-backed ground offensive in Aleppo, and will be used on battlefronts in Aleppo, Hama and the coastal regions. The weapon systems have a range of 22km and 40km, depending in variant, and have reportedly been supplied in "excellent quantities." 

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 28 September, officials of the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that United States and coalition forces carried out ten airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) in Syria. Strikes were conducted near Shadaddi, Marea, Manbij, Raqqah and Dayr Az Zawr, and reportedly destroyed six tactical units, ten fighting positions, two vehicles, one oil pump jack, one mortar system, 12 oil tanker trucks, two oil well heads and one bridge. 

Eight killed as airstrikes hit hospital and bakery in Aleppo

On 28 September, Syrian or Russian airstrikes targeted two hospitals in the rebel-held sector of Aleppo, killing two patients and knocking out power generators and oxygen facilities. Patients have been transferred to another hospital, but the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) charity say that there are only seven doctors left in east Aleppo in a position to perform surgery. Six residents were killed when shelling hit a bakery as they were queuing for bread. 

Turkish forces destroy thirty Islamic State targets

On 27 September, Turkish artillery targeted Islamic State (IS) positions in northern Syria, destroying 30 targets with 57 artillery rounds. Turkish airstrikes also destroyed IS elements in four buildings being used as command posts and weapons depots in Tal-ar, Amiriyah and El Eyyubiyah. Three Turkish personnel were also reportedly wounded in a drone strike in the Wukuf region of northern Syria. They were transported to a hospital across the border in Kilis province of Turkey.

Intense clashes in south-western Aleppo

On 27 September, intense clashes broke out between the Syrian Army and opposition forces in the rebel-held 1070 Apartments district in south-western Aleppo. If the Syrian regime recaptures the area they will be able to facilitate their own access to the city whilst simultaneously consolidating the siege on rebel-held districts.

US-led coalition airstrikes destroy Islamic State targets

On 25 September, officials from the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve stated that US and coalition forces had carried out 13 airstrikes near Abu Kamal, Manbij, Dayr Az Zawr and Marea. The airstrikes reportedly destroyed four tactical units, seven oil tanker trucks, seven oil well heads, six fighting positions, two weapons caches, one mortar system, one heavy machine gun, one vehicle and one vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED). The strikes also damaged two supply routes.

Syrian Army declares new offensive in eastern Aleppo

On 22 September, the Syrian Defence Ministry announced that the military will be launching a new offensive in the rebel-held areas in eastern Aleppo. The statement claimed that the military has made arrangements for those wanting to leave the area and said that civilians should avoid areas where "terrorists" are operating. It is not yet known whether the new offensive will involve ground troops. 

United Nations to resume humanitarian aid convoys

On 22 September, the United Nations appealed to the Syrian government and rebel groups to allow aid convoys to enter eastern Aleppo. A convoy is expected to deliver aid to the rebel-held area of Moadamyeh, in the suburbs of Damascus. The decision comes after a 48-hour suspension of all humanitarian aid convoys after an airstrike in Aleppo hit a UN aid convoy and killed 12 people on 19 September. 

Heavy airstrikes hit rebel-held areas of Aleppo

Rebel-held areas of Aleppo were hit by heavy airstrikes overnight, with reports of incendiary bombs being dropped and entire streets burning. Activists have reported that 10 people were killed in Bustan al-Qasr. Fighting has also resumed in the southern district as rebel forces are attempting to break a siege by government forces. 

Four medical workers and nine militants killed in airstrikes in Aleppo

At least four medical workers have been killed and a nurse critically injured in an airstrike on a health clinic in the village of Khan Touman, near Aleppo. The four staff from the Union of Syrian Medical Relief Organisations (UOSSM) were in two ambulances attempting to transport some patients to a more specialised medical facility when the clinic was levelled by Syrian or Russian warplanes. All three floors of the clinic collapsed, with many feared to be buried under the rubble. It is not yet known exactly how many were killed in the bombing. The strikes also reportedly killed nine rebel fighters from the Jaish al-Fatah Islamist alliance. 

Two Turkish soldiers killed in northern Syria

On 20 September, two Turkish soldiers were killed when a mine detonated as they were carrying out ordnance clearance operations in the Akçakoyunlu region, between the Oğuzeli district of Gaziantep and the Elbeyli district of Kilis. The explosion happened as Free Syrian Army (FSA) units were advancing near the al-Bab region with support from US-led coalition airstrikes. Non-commissioned officer Bayram Kara and specialised sergeant Burak Uçar were killed as they were clearing an area for the construction of a modular wall. Both soldiers were severely wounded in the explosion but died in hospital. Their deaths bring the number of Turkish personnel killed in action during Operation Euphrates Shield to ten. 

United Nations suspends all aid convoys to Syria

The UN has suspended all aid convoys in Syria after a convoy was hit by airstrikes in Aleppo on Monday. The convoy had received proper permits and all parties involved in the conflict, including Russia and the US, were properly informed. 18 of the 31 lorries carrying wheat, winter clothes and medical supplies, were destroyed and a number of civilians were killed, including a senior official of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that the attack in Urum al-Kubra, Aleppo province, was carried out by either Syrian or Russian aircraft, as staff were unloading supplies into a Red Crescent warehouse. 

Army declares end of ceasefire

On 19 September, the Syrian military declared an end to the week-long ceasefire brokered by US and Russian officials, blaming rebel groups for repeated violations and launching attacks on rebel-held areas. The announcement comes after a US-led coalition airstrike on Sunday mistakenly killed dozens of Syrian soldiers. Opposition fighters and activists have also accused the government of violating the ceasefire. Following the end of the ceasefire, a United Nations and Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy was hit by airstrikes in Aleppo province. At least 18 of the 31 trucks were reported to be hit, with at least 12 people being killed. 

Turkish airstrikes hit Islamic State targets in northern Syria

A statement from the Turkish military confirmed that Turkish jets had carried out air strikes on Islamic State (IS) targets in northern Syria on 18 September. Three targets used by IS as an ammunition store, military headquarters and shelter were destroyed in the strikes. 

Twenty-three civilians killed in airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province

On 15 September, at least 23 civilians were killed and another 20 were severely wounded in airstrikes on the Islamic State (IS)-held town of Al-Mayadin in Deir Ezzor province, eastern Syria. Nine of the fatalities are believed to be children, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. It is not yet known whether the airstrikes were carried out by Syrian or Russian planes. The US-Russian brokered truce in place since Monday does not include areas where IS are present. 

Syrian Army withdraws from main Aleppo road

The Syrian Army has started the withdrawal of heavy military equipment to create a demilitarised zone in Aleppo. They have reportedly ceased firing and begun to withdraw their tanks, armoured vehicles and artillery to a set distance, and have handed over a checkpoint on Castello Road to the Red Crescent Society. However, the first deputy chief of the General Staff's Main Operational Department stated that the withdrawal from Castello road in Aleppo may be halted if militants fail to do it simultaneously with the Syrian army.

Six Islamic State militants killed in coalition airstrikes

On 13 September, six Islamic State (IS) militants were killed in airstrikes by US-led coalition warplanes between al-Rai and Azaz. Coalition jets reportedly carried out five strikes on IS targets in the Yahmul, Kafr Ghan, Güzel Mezra and Jakka areas, east of Azaz. The airstrikes also destroyed four mortar positions and two defensive positions. 

Seven-day ceasefire comes into effect

At 19:00 local time (16:00 GMT) on 12 September, a Russian-brokered ceasefire came into effect across Syria. In a statement released on the same day, the Syrian military pledged to adhere to the ceasefire agreement until midnight on 18 September, although it maintained its right to defend itself and retaliate to any violations.

Syrian regime claims to have shot down Israeli jet

The Syrian Defence Ministry claims to have shot down an Israeli fighter jet and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the disputed Golan Heights. The aircraft was carrying out strikes against Syrian artillery positions after an errant shell landed in Israeli territory yesterday evening. The Israel Defence Forces (IDF) immediately refuted the claim, releasing a statement saying that "Early this morning, two missiles were launched from Syria after the Israeli Air Force (IAF) targeted Syrian artillery positions. IDF aircraft were not harmed." Syrian troops in an anti-aircraft battery reportedly used surface-to-air (SAM) missiles, but they missed their target and "at no point" compromised pilot safety.

Turkish airstrikes destroy four stationary targets in northern Syria

On 9 September, Turkish airstrikes destroyed four stationary targets in northern Syria as part of 'Operation Euphrates Shield,' aimed at clearing Islamic State (IS) militants and Syrian Kurdish fighters from the Turkish border. The exact location of the airstrikes was not released in the statement issued by the Turkish military.

Rebel commander killed in US airstrikes

A senior commander from the Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (formerly Nusra Front) rebel group has been killed in a suspected US airstrike.  The group said Abu Omar Sarakeb died in a strike in a rural area of Aleppo province on Thursday.  Several other rebel fighters were also killed, although Jabhat Fateh al-Sham's leader, Abu Mohammad al-Jolani, was not believed to be in the area at the time.

Israeli aircraft hit Syrian targets in the Golan Heights

For the second time in five days, Israeli aircraft have attacked Syrian targets after an errant mortar shell from fighting among the various factions in Syria hit Israeli territory in the Golan Heights. No casualties from the shellfire were reported, and the Israeli military released a statement saying "the Israeli air force targeted Syrian armed forces mortar launchers in the northern Syrian Golan Heights."

Turkish border post attacked by YPG in Afrin, near Hatay

On 7 September, Turkish security forces fired on Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YGP) fighters in retaliation for attacking a Turkish border post in Afrin, near Hatay. 

Turkish shelling kills six Kurdish militants in north-western Syria

On 7 September, Turkish shelling in the majority-Kurdish area of Afrin, in north-western Syria, killed six US-backed Kurdish fighters dead and several civilians wounded. The area has been held by the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) since 2012.

Three Turkish soldiers killed, four wounded, in IS attack in northern Syria

On 6 September, three Turkish soldiers were killed and another four wounded in a rocket attack that targeted two Turkish tanks south of Al-Rai, near the Turkish border, northern Syria. The attack was carried out by militants from the Islamic State (IS). The casualties are believed to be the first to be caused by IS since Turkey launched Operation Euphrates Shield  in Syria two weeks ago.

Government forces retake control of eastern Aleppo

On Sunday, loyalist government forces and their allies captured the eastern part of Aleppo, north-western Syria. In separate offensives also carried out by Turkish-backed militants, the forces managed to take control of the Ramousah. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) told Reuters that the offensive was fully supported by intense aerial strikes. The attack comes as government soldiers and Kurdish fighters intensify their efforts to shut down one of Islamic State's (IS) main route of supplies from Turkey.

At least thirty-two killed in a series of explosions near Damascus

Five explosions were reported on Monday along a road in the outskirts of Syria's capital Damascus. According to the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) and the Syrian state news Agency, over 32 people were killed, with the number of casualties feared to rise. The attack took place across Homs and Tartous, both government and Kurdish-held areas. Other areas affected were a road between Beirut and Damascus near the town of al Saboura, where one person was killed and three others injured. Casualties were also reported in Hasaka and the Homs's neighbourhood of al-Zahra. No group claimed responsibility for the attack, and the authorities are investigating to determine whether the attacks are connected.

One killed and several wounded in air strikes in Ghouta and Latakia

On 2 September, Syrian jets carried out air strikes in the towns of Saqba and Hamoriyah, in Rif Dimashq, resulting in the death of one person, with several others wounded. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights states that warplanes also targeted areas around the village of Kabbanah in Jabal Al Akrad, northern Latakia. No casualty figured have emerged from this area.

Retired Iranian general killed fighting Jihadists in Aleppo

A retired Iranian general, Ahmad Gholami, was killed on 30 August when he was voluntarily fighting Jihadist militants in Aleppo, norther Syria. He is one of hundreds of Iranian volunteers and advisers that have died in Syria and Iraq in recent years, although the Iranian authorities do not provide exact casualty figures.

Islamic State spokesman killed in Aleppo

Abu Muhummadal al-Adnani, the chief strategist of the Islamic State (IS) terror group, has reportedly been killed in an air strike in Aleppo province. The Pentagon states that an air strike targeted al-Adnani in the town of Al Bab, and a damage assessment was underway to confirm the reports. The IS-affiliated news network, Amaq, said that al-Adnani was "martyred while surveying the operations to repel the military campaigns against Aleppo." They did not provide any details about the circumstances of his death. 

Forty-eight hour ceasefire in established in Al-Waer district of Homs

A 48-hour ceasefire has been established in the Al-Waer district of Homs, starting at 12:00 on 30 August. This agreement between government forces and Jihadist rebels comes after two consecutive days of aerial bombardment, in which seven civilians were killed and dozens more injured. Al-Waer is the only district of Homs under Jihadist control.

Turkish tanks cross Syrian border towards Jarablus

A dozen Turkish tanks and other military vehicles crossed the Syrian border in the direction of the Jarablust area on Wednesday. Military sources told Turkish media that the offensive comes after more than 80 insurgent targets were destroyed by artillery and airstrikes. The operation was allegedly supported by the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (FSA), which stated to have captured the nearby village of Hjeliya. Turkey's government fears that the area will become a Kurdish stronghold. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that: "(...) our forces began an operation against the Islamic State (IS) and Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) terror groups." The offensive comes days after consecutive shelling from Syria hit the Turkish town of Karkamis.

Airstrikes reported in Hasaka

Syrian regime warplanes have carried out airstrikes in Kurdish-controlled areas of Hasaka, south-eastern Syria, for the first time since the war started.  People's Protection Units (YPG) spokesman Redur Xelil said the strikes hit Kurdish districts of the city.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes had also been reported to the north-east and north-west of Hasaka, with government forces firing artillery shells at the city.  The YPG said there had been civilian casualties but could not confirm the number of killed or wounded.

Suicide bomb on bus kills 30 rebels near Turkish border

A suicide bomb on a bus near the Atmeh border with Turkey has killed more than 30 rebel fighters. Reports say that the attacker detonated an explosive vest on the bus at the entrance to a camp for displaced people late on Sunday. Activists monitoring the conflict have said that the death toll is expected to rise. A news agency linked to the Islamic State terror group reported that one of its militants was behind the attack.

Fighting rages in Aleppo despite Russian ceasefire

Heavy fighting has been reported in and around the northern city of Aleppo, despite a commitment by Russia to pause military operations for "humanitarian windows".  The United Nations is investigating the use of chlorine gas in attacks by the Syrian government, which UN special envoy Staffan de Mistura said would constitute a "war crime".  The few remaining doctors in Aleppo have called on the US to offer more protection to civilians trapped in the city.  "Unless a permanent lifeline to Aleppo is opened it will be only a matter of time until we are again surrounded by regime troops, hunger takes hold and hospitals' supplies run completely dry," the doctors said in an open letter.

Regime forces bomb medical facilities in Aleppo

The US-based group, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), said on Wednesday that six hospitals in Aleppo were bombed by Syrian warplanes during the last week of July. The group claims that attacks on civilians carried out by regime forces are rising significantly and are hindering humanitarian aid efforts. The report comes nearly a week after an intense government offensive on the city, where at least 42 people were killed and dozens more injured.

Helicopter drops chlorine gas on Saraqeb

More than 30 civilians are being treated in hospital after a helicopter dropped barrels suspected of containing chlorine gas on the town of Saraqeb in Idlib province.  Raed Saleh, head of the Syrian Civil Defence group, said: "Just before midnight helicopters dropped five explosive barrels containing cylinders of chlorine and shards of metal on neighbourhoods in Saraqeb." Dr Abdel Aziz Bareeh told the BBC that residents know that it was chlorine gas because it has been used in previous attacks in the town.

Russian helicopter shot down in Idlib

A Russian helicopter with five crew members has been shot down in the northern Idlib province.  Russia's Defence Ministry said the Mi-8 transport helicopter was returning to the Hmeimim base when it was taken down by ground fire, killing all onboard.  They died a "heroic death" on a humanitarian mission, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters.  The  helicopter had been used to deliver humanitarian aid to the besieged northern city of Aleppo.

Nusra Front splits from al-Qaeda

The leader of the Nusra Front (or Jabhat al-Nusra) has announced that the group has split from al-Qaeda.  Abu Mohammed al-Jolani said in a recorded message that the Syrian group had also changed its name to Jabhat Fath al Sham, of The Front for liberation of al Sham.  He said the move was intended to stop the US, Russia and other coalition forces from using the group's connection to al-Qaeda as a pretext for airstrikes.  Al-Qaeda are apparently supporting the decision, saying the organisation had instructed "the leadership of the Nusra Front to go ahead with what protects the interests of Islam and Muslims and what protects jihad" in Syria.

Maternity hospital hit by airstrike in Idlib

The UK-based charity Save the Children said on Friday that a maternity hospital has been bombed in Syria's north-eastern Idlib region. According to the source, an airstrike hit the hospital, one of the biggest in the province. It remains unclear who carried out the strike and a large number of casualties have been reported. Idlib is located close to Aleppo, where recently Russia, backed by the Syrian government, launched a plan to open three humanitarian corridors. The United Nations and the US initially approached the idea with scepticism; however, it was generally accepted as a viable option to free the 300,000 people trapped in the city.

Civilians killed by US-led colation airstrike near Manbij

Reports from the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) stated that at least 15 civilians were killed and dozens injured by US-led coalition airstrikes in northern Syria. SOHR's head, Rami Abdel Rahman, said that the strikes took place in Ghandoura, near Manbij, a key strategic point between Turkey and the city of Raqqa. The airstrikes come nearly a week after local soldiers, backed by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), regained control of the Hezwana neighbourhood and where dozens of Islamic State (IS) fighters were found dead.

Scores killed in Qamishli suicide bomb attack

At least 50 people have been killed and dozens more wounded in a suicide bombing in Qamishli in Syria's north-eastern Hassekah province. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) a truck loaded with explosives blew up near a Kurdish security headquarters in the west of the city on Wednesday morning.  The Islamic State (IS) group claimed responsibility for the attack via its Amaq news agency.

Deadly airstrikes hit Aleppo as residents urged to leave

At least 42 people have been killed and dozens more wounded in government airstrikes in the city of al-Atareb in Aleppo province.  Local residents said more than 20 strikes hit on Monday, the largest reported assault on the city during the civil war.  The Syrian army has also sent text messages to residents in Aleppo offering them safe passage out of rebel-held areas.  State news agency SANA said the messages also called on armed groups to lay down their weapons.

Local armed group gains control of neighbourhood in Manbij

Local soldiers, backed by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), have regained control of the Hezwana neighbourhood in Manbij, northern Syria. According to Kurdish news agencies, the Manbij Military Council cleared the area on Wednesday from the Islamic State (IS). Reports said that 62 IS militants were found dead, while a large cache of ammunition was seized in the raids. The operation comes days after US-led coalition airstrikes bombed several IS positions in the region, including an IS command centre. 

US-led airstrikes kill 21 in Manbij

At least 21 civilians were killed in US-led airstrikes in the northern town of Manbij on Monday.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes targeted the Hazawneh area of the city and the nearby village of Tokhar.  The Syria Democratic Forces (SDF), backed by the US, launched an offensive to recapture the town from Islamic State (IS) last month.  Meanwhile Heval Agir, a US volunteer who joined Syrian Kurdish fighters to fight IS, has been killed in the operation to retake Manbij.

Airstrikes kill 28 in beseiged city of Aleppo

At least 28 people have been killed in airstrikes in rebel-held areas of the city of Aleppo in northern Syria.  A hospital was hit in the east of the city and local residents said warplanes had used barrel bombs.  On Sunday the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said pro-government forces had also closed the key Castello Road, trapping people in the city and creating a blockade.  The UN has warned that nearly 300,000 people rely on the Castello Road for travel, food and medicine, with local market stalls sparsely stocked.

Several dead in airstrikes across eastern Syria

The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that a series of airstrikes resulted in the death of dozens of Syrians in Idlib and Homs on Wednesday. In Idlib, four consecutive airstrikes targeting the main market in Ariha killed 12 people, including three children. In a separate incident, over 20 people are feared to be dead in shelling and air strikes executed by government forces in Rastan, Homs province. The attacks happened despite the ceasefire unilaterally established by the Syrian government.

Several killed in air bombdament along Jordanian border

A major refugee camp located in Hadalat, near the Jordanian border, was targeted by warplanes on Wednesday. At least 17 people were killed and 40 others injured when an unknown aircraft bombed the temporary camp, home to nearly 60,000 displaced people. Activist groups believe that the camp was targeted because some of the occupants are members of Asoud al-Sharqiya, a US-backed rebel group operating out of Jordan. The Jordanian government closed the border in June after seven border guards were killed in a deadly attack claimed by the Islamic State (IS) group.

Thirteen killed in ammunition warehouse blast in al-Raqqa

At least 13 people were killed in an explosion in northern Syria on Monday. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) the incident happened at an Islamic State (IS) ammunition warehouse in the city of al-Raqqa. Among the fatalities were six civilians, including four children, and seven IS militants. Al-Raqqa is a key strategic city in the region and is frequently targeted in airstrikes by the US-led coalition in Syria.

Rebels battle government troops for Aleppo

Syrian rebel fighters have launched an assault on a government-held district of Aleppo, a long-divided city in the north of Syria.  Opposition groups launched an assault at dawn on Monday to recapture the Castello Road, a key supply route for the rebels.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 19 government soldiers were killed when rebels blew up a tunnel underneath a military post.  The progress of the rebels has been limited by heavy bombardment by Syrian and Russian jets.

Two Russian helicopter pilots killed in Syria

Two Russian helicopter pilots have died after they were shot down in central Syria.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group said they took down the Mi-25 helicopter near the city of Palmyra on Friday. The deaths of Riafagat Khabibulin and Yevgeny Dolgin mean that Russia have now lost at least 12 soldiers since starting military operations in Syria last September.

Several killed by airstrikes in Idlib

Airstrikes targeting rebel group strongholds has led to the death of 22 people in Idlib province, north-western Syria. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) the attacks, carried out by unknown aircraft, hit the town of Darkush, close to the Turkish border. SOHR stated that among the groups targeted is the al-Qaeda-backed Nusra Front. Despite the 72-hour ceasefire announced by the regime on Wednesday, loyalist forces have been continuing attacks on rebel positions across the country.

Loyalists launch offensive near Damascus despite ceasefire

Loyalist forces and allied fighters launched an offensive on Wednesday to clear Maydaa, in south-eastern Syria, from the control of rebel groups. Despite the three-day ceasefire announced by the regime earlier this week, government forces hit the rebel-held towns of Douma and Daraya with shelling and airstrikes. Free Syrian Army (FSA) rebels released a statement condemning the violation of the ceasefire and said that their militants will not abide by the agreement if the regime does not respect it.

Syrian army declares 72-hour ceasefire

The Syrian army has declared a 72-hour nationwide ceasefire, although fighting and airstrikes have continued. A statement by the general command said the "regime of calm" began at 01:00 on Wednesday and would last until midnight on Friday.  The ceasefire coveres the three-day Eid al-Fitr celebrations, which marks the end of Ramadan.  The army did not specify if the truce will cover Islamist militant groups, including Islamic State (IS) and the Nusra Front. 

Car bomb kills 10 near Turkish border

A car bomb has killed at least 10 people and injured nine others in Tal Abyad, near the Turkish border. The device exploded on the town’s main street on Tuesday.  According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) the town was captured from the Islamic State (IS) by Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG) and its allies.  An alliances was established in October, 2015 in order to form the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), which is currently fighting jihadists across northern and western Syrian with US support.

Airstrikes kill scores across northern and eastern Syria

Syrian regime and Russian airstrikes have killed scores of people across northern and eastern Syria over the weekend.  At least 82 people, including 58 civilians, were killed in the eastern province of Deir Ezzor on Saturday.  Jets have also targeted rebel-held areas of Syria's largest city, Aleppo.  "Russian planes are backing a Syrian regime ground offensive on the northern edges of the city, while Syrian planes bomb the eastern neighbourhoods," said the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdel Rahman.  Activists also claim that incendiary bombs have been dropped over populated areas of the city of Aleppo for the first time.

IS executes five Syrian journalists

The Islamic State (IS) claims to have executed five Syrian citizen journalists, who were kidnapped eight months ago.  The victims, who were all from the city of Deir Ezzor, were abducted in October, 2015.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the five were probably killed last November or December.  “The video was only published now because IS - who are losing ground in Syria - want to send a message that they are still strong,” Observatory chief Rami Abdel Rahman said. 

SDF engages in heavy fighting with IS in Manbij

Fighters from the US-backed Syria Democratic Forces (SDF) have engaged in fierce battles with Islamic State (IS) militants in Manbij city, near the Turkish border. The fighting was triggered after improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and rocket positions were found along Manbij city. SDF and coalition forces already captured several surrounding villages near Manbij; however, hundreds of civilians remain trapped in the IS-controlled city.

Scores killed by airstrikes in Raqqa

At least 25 civilians have been killed by airstrikes in Raqqa, northern Syria. Among the casualties are six children, while dozens more were wounded, some of them critically. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said on Wednesday that the responsibility for the attack remains unclear, however they suspect the Russian and Syrian military were behind it.

Dozens of loyalists killed during IS counter-attack in Raqqa

Islamic State (IS) fighters regained control of large parts of Raqqa after fierce battles with pro-government forces on Monday.  According to the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), more than 40 pro-regime fighters were killed during the militant counter-attack.  Activists also claim that 18 civilians were killed in airstrikes in the city of Raqqa on Tuesday.

Jordanian troops killed at Syrian border

Six Jordanian soldiers have been killed and 14 others wounded in a car bomb attack near the border with Syria.  The blast hit the al-Rukban district on Tuesday morning, close to a Syrian refugee camp.  Jordan's state TV described the incident as a "cowardly terrorist attack", and although no group immediately claimed responsibility the Islamic State (IS) have threatened Jordan in the past.

Suicide bomb attack kills three in Qamishli

Three people have been killed and five others wounded in a suicide bomb attack in the north-eastern city of Qamishli.  The blast targeted an event on Sunday to commemorate the massacre of Christians by the Ottoman army in 1915. "The suicide attacker tried to enter the hall where people were gathered but was stopped by local security forces, and he detonated himself among them,” a security source told the AFP.

Turkish troops kill 11 Syrians at border crossing

Turkish border guards have shot dead 11 Syrians as they tried to cross into Turkey, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Right.  Two women and four children are reported to be among the victims of the attack, which happened near the border village of Khirbet al Jouz on Saturday night.  Turkish officials said they are investigating the reports, although the military denied that anyone was killed.   "Last night there was an attempt to cross the border illegally but no shots were fired directly on people," a Turkish military statement said. 

Scores dead in Aleppo fighting

At least 70 fighters have been killed in fierce clashes between government forces, rebels and Islamic militants in Aleppo province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Right said on Wednesday that the fighting has been recorded over the last 24 hours.  Pro-government troops retook the villages of Zaytan and Khalasa, south-west of Aleppo city, while Nusra Front have launched an offensive to retake Khalasa from the regime.  Russian jets are also reported to have been carrying out airstrikes on Nusra Front positions in the province.

Airstrikes kill 27 in Idlib province

At least 27 people have been killed in a series of airstrikes in the north-western Idlib province.  At least 21 people died - including five children - when strikes hit a marketplace in Idlib city on Sunday.  Later six people died when the town of Maarat al-Numan was targeted.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said both government and Russian jets were flying in the area, but it was unknown which carried out the airstrikes.

Hospital hit by airstrike in Aleppo

At least 15 people have been killed and dozens more wounded in a series of airstrikes in the rebel-held city of Aleppo.  Local monitoring groups said the al-Bayan hospital in the eastern Shaar district was hit in one of the strikes.  “It’s an area crowded with civilians and patients who come to these hospitals, so perhaps the target was either civilians or the hospitals,” said Abo al-Ezz from the Syrian-American Medical Society.  It is not yet clear who was responsibly for the strikes, although they came shortly after President Bashar al-Assad vowed to retake "every inch" of the country.

Deiz Ez Zor hit by deadly airstrikes

At least 26 people have been killed in government airstrikes in Syria's Deir Ez Zor province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said on Monday that women and children were among those killed in the strikes in the Shaara neighbourhood of Deir Ez Zor city.  Elsewhere the Syrian army, backed by Russian airstrikes, killed at least 26 Islamic State (IS) fighters during operations in Hama province.

Aleppo hit by regime airstrikes

The Syrian government carried out a series of airstrikes on the besieged city of Aleppo on Friday.  At least 28 people were killed in several rebel-held neighbourhoods of the city, according to civil defence units on the ground.  A further 10 people died when a bus was hit on the Castello road, a key supply route out of the city. "All movement is targeted, be that buses or bystanders," said Rami Abdel Rahman, the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Bomb explodes outside Latakia mosque

Several people have been killed and wounded after a bomb exploded outside a mosque in the coastal city of Latakia.  State news agency SANA said a motorcycle bomb caused the blast in the Qa'tour district of the city on Thursday.  Last month a series of car bombings and suicide attacks killed around 150 people in and around the city, which is a stronghold of President Bashar al-Assad.

Airstrikes kill 23 in Idlib

Several overnight airstrikes led to the death of at least 23 people in Idlib, north-western Syria. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) and the Turkish foreign ministry stated that multiple strikes were carried out by Russian aircraft. Russia's Defence Ministry, Igor Konashnkov, denied any involvement in the bombing on the rebel-held city. Since September, Russia, an ally of the Assad regime, has been carrying out airstrikes against opposition-held positions across the country.

Kurdish troops launch Raqqa offensive

Kurdish-led troops have launched an offensive on the northern Syrian city of Raqqa, which has been largely held by the Islamic State (IS) since 2014.  The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) are estimated to have deployed 30,000 soldiers on the city, while both the US-led coalition and Russia will provide air support.  "We have always been focused on evicting IS from Raqqa and we will continue to support the SDF as they conduct ground operations to further isolate the city," said US spokesman Steve Warren.  On Tuesday clashes were reported near the town of Tal Abyad, around 60km north-west of Raqqa.

Wave of bombings target Assad stronghold

At least 100 people have been killed in a wave of bomb attacks across the coastal strongholds of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.  Suicide and car bombs exploded at bus station in the port city of Tartous before four bombs exploded in Jableh, hitting a bus station and a hospital.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 53 people died in Jableh and 48 in Tartus.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group claimed responsibility for the attacks via it Amaq media arm.

Clashes between Kurdish rebels and loyalists kill two in Hasaka

Violent clashes between Syrian government forces and Kurdish rebels took place in Hasaka, north-eastern Syria. According to Kurdish media, loyalist forces tried to disrupt activities at a school while examinations were taking place on Wednesday. Two civilians were killed and five others wounded. Despite the presence of government forces in Hasaka, there are still several Kurdish-held areas that remain under control by the paramilitary Asayish and the People's Protection Units (YPG).

Turkish and US airstrikes hit IS in Syria

Turkish and US-led coalition airstrikes have targeted Islamic State (IS) militants near the northern city of Aleppo.  At least 27 fighters were killed in the raids on Sunday, according to Turkey's state-run Anadolu Agency.  Several IS artillery posts were also destroyed around 10km from the Turkish border to prevent further shelling of the town of Kilis, which has been targeted several times in recent weeks.  On Monday the Turkish military said they had also detained seven suspected IS fighters in the area.

IS seizes regime hospital in Deir Ezzor

Islamic State (IS) militants have captured a government-held hospital in the divided eastern city of Deir Ezzor.  At least 20 regime soldiers were killed and several staff members taken hostage in the assault on the Al-Assad hospital, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  IS's Amaq news agency said that the group also took control of a check point, a fire station and university accommodation in the city.

Several senior Nusra Front members killed in Idlib

At least 16 senior members of the jihadist Nusra Front group were killed on Friday by airstrikes in Abu al-Dubhour in the north-western Idlib district. The attack happened a week after a refugee camp in the region was targeted in suspected Russian airstrikes, where at least 28 people died and 50 others were injured.

Top Hezbollah leader killed in Damascus

Mustafa Amine Badreddine, a top Hezbollah Commander, has been killed in Damascus. According to the group's media channel, several others were also wounded by the blast near Damascus International Airport, the causes of which are under investigation. Badreddine was one of the main suspects of the bomb attack that killed former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and 22 others in 2005. He also was a significant figure in the support of the Assad regime and the involvement of Hezbollah in the Syrian civil war.

Seven civilians killed by airstrike in Deir Ezzor

Airstrikes led to the death of seven civilians, including one child, on Wednesday. The airstrikes, allegedly carried out by regime forces, hit a health facility located in the Shuhail district of eastern Syria. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, dozens of people have been wounded and the number of casualties is expected to rise. The oil-rich Deir Ezzor province is controlled by the Islamic State (IS), which has held the region since April, 2014 after a fierce three-month long battle against rebel and regime forces.

IS cuts main regime forces supply route in western Syria

Just months after regime forces recaptured the ancient city of Palmyra, the Islamic State (IS) group cut a key regional supply route for the Syrian army. The route between Homs and Palmyra was cut near the Tayfur military airport in an IS offensive on Tuesday. The incident is the most significant IS offensive since the fall of Palmyra on 27 March.

Kidnapped Spanish journalists released in Syria

Three Spanish journalists have been released after almost a year in captivity in Syria.  Antonio Pampliega, Jose Manuel Lopez and Angel Sastre were kidnapped last July while covering the conflict in the northern city of Aleppo.  The Spanish government said the trio landed in Spain on Sunday morning following months of negotiations with the kidnappers, reported to be the Nusra Front militant group.  In a statement the Spanish government also thanked the "State of Qatar for its efforts in the release."

IS fighters killed by Turkish troops in Aleppo

More than 50 Islamic State (IS) fighters have been killed by Turkish troops north of the besieged city of Aleppo.  The Turkish military said three vehicles and three rocket installations were also destroyed during the operation in Suran and Tal EL Hisn on Saturday.  Iran's Revolutionary Guards said that 13 of its military advisors were killed on Saturday in clashes with IS fighters around Khan Touman, 15km south-west of Aleppo.

Scores killed in rebel offensive near Aleppo

At least 73 people have been killed during a rebel offensive on the town of Khan Touman, near Aleppo, in northern Syria. The attack was executed by a coalition of rebel groups known as Jaish al-Fatah, which includes forces from the Nusra Front, which has not signed the US-Russian-brokered ceasefire.  The Syrian Army denies that insurgents are in control of the city.

Airstrike kills 28 at Idlib refugee camp

At least 28 people were killed and more than 50 others wounded after airstrikes hit a refugee camp on Thursday evening. The incident happened at the Al-Kammouna camp, near Sarmada, in the north-western Idlib province. According to the pro-rebel Shahba Press news agency the attack was carried out by Syrian regime aircraft, although other groups claim the jets were Russian. The attack has been condemned by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN), with Stephen O'Brien, the UN humanitarian affairs chief, telling the BBC that the incident "could amount to a war crime".

Ten civilians killed in Homs attacks

At least 10 civilians were killed and 40 others wounded in two attacks in Homs in central Syria on Thursday. A suicide attack and a car bomb hit the main square of Makharam Fawqani, a town under control of the Bashar al-Assad's regime since March. The attacks come after IS militants took control of the nearby gas reserves of Shaer in a deadly offensive that killed 16 government soldiers. The director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) told the AFP that the recent attacks proved that the regime forces "are not capable of maintaining control in certain areas".

IS militants seize gas field near Homs

Islamic State (IS) militants have seized a strategic gas field in Shaer in eastern Syria. According to the local news agency, Amaq, the militants claimed the death of over 30 government soldiers and the capture of a considerable quantity of heavy weaponry, including tanks and missiles. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) confirmed the fall of the facility after three days of intense clashes. IS fighters had previously captured the gas fields and facilities but were defeated in late-2014 by loyalist forces.

Heavy fighting continues in Aleppo

Dozens of people have been killed in ongoing clashes in the besieged northern city of Aleppo.  Rebel fighters launched a fresh assault on the city on Tuesday, including a rocket attack on the al-Dabit hospital which killed three people and wounded 17 others.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the rebels made gains overnight but were pushed back by Syrian troops on Wednesday.  International leaders including US Secretary of State John Kerry and Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov have been meeting UN envoy Staffan de Mistura in an attempt to extend the country's fragile truce to Aleppo, which has seen the most intense fighting in more than a year.

Eleven IS militants killed near Turkish border

Eleven Islamic State (IS) militants have been killed in northern Syria. IS fighters launched mortar attacks against Turkish positions near the border town of Karkamis on Thursday. The Turkish military returned fire, killing all eleven attackers. The town of Karkamis is just across the border from the IS-held town of Jarablus.

Airstrike hits hospital in Aleppo

At least 27 people have been killed after an airstrike hit a hospital in the northern city of Aleppo.  Rights groups said the Al Quds hospital in a rebel-held neighbourhood was struck by a missile on Wednesday. The strike comes amid a major military offensive on the city, which has seen at least 100 people killed since Friday. "In the last 48 hours, we have had an average of one Syrian killed every 25 minutes, one Syrian wounded every 13 minutes," said Staffan de Mistura, the UN special envoy to Syria.

Five rescue workers killed by airstrike in Atareb

Five rescue workers have been killed by airstrikes in the northern Syrian town of Atareb, near Aleppo. Airstrikes and rocket attacks hit a centre for the Syrian Civil Defence, known as 'White Helmets'. The Civil Defence corps work as first responders in opposition-held territory where medical infrastructure has broken down. According to Ahmad Sheikho, two other people were wounded and several vehicles were destroyed in the strikes. 

Nineteen civilians killed in Aleppo fighting

At least 19 civilians were killed and 120 others wounded by rebel bombardment of several neighbourhoods of Aleppo on Monday. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, rebel groups fired shells at districts held by loyalist forces. The SANA news agency reported that the attacks were carried out by Nusra Front and its allies. Conflict in Aleppo has intensified since government forces retook control of the city in February, gaining control of the main supply routes between Aleppo and government-held areas.

IS militants killed near Turkish border

US-led coalition airstrikes killed at least 30 Islamic State (IS) militants near the Turkish border on Monday. The attack happened close to the Kilis province, where scores of Syrian refugees are settled. Since January the southern Turkish province has witnessed several rocket attacks, leading to the death of at least 17 people. 

Car bomb kills six in Damascus

A car bomb has killed at least six people in the Syrian capital, Damascus.  The device exploded at a Syrian army checkpoint in the Sayeda Zeinab area in the south of the city on Monday.  Dozens more people were wounded in the blast and the death toll is expected to rise, said local monitoring groups.  The incident comes two months after the Islamic State (IS) killed more than 130 people in a multiple bomb attack in Sayeda Zeinab.

Warplane crashes near Damascus

A Syrian warplane crashed south-west of the capital, Damascus on Friday.  It is not clear when the plane was shot down by rebels or if it suffered a technical fault.  The Islamic State (IS) earlier claimed that a government jet had been shot down, but the group did not take responsibility for it.  Earlier this month the Nusra Front brought down a Syrian plane with a surface-to-air missile near the northern city of Aleppo.

Airstrikes kill 14 in Aleppo

Syrian government airstrikes have killed at least 14 civilians and wounded dozens more in the second city of Aleppo.  Friday's strikes hit the heavily populated Bustan al-Qasr neighbourhood, the Al-Mashad district and the opposition-held area of Salhin.  The ongoing military operations are taking place despite a ceasefire, which began at the end of February.

Syrian forces launch attacks against rebels in north-western Syria

Syrian government forces supported by Russian airstrikes have launched counter-attacks against rebels in the province of Latakia and other locations in north-western Syria. The attacks resulted in the deaths of at least five people in the town of Kafr Nubl, in the rebel-held area of Idlib, and of three others in neighbouring Maarat al-Numan. In response, rebels fired rockets killing three children in Kefraya, a town under government control. 

IS seizes several villages in Aleppo province

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, six villages in Syria's Aleppo province were seized by Islamic State (IS) militants on Thursday. The villages, located close to the Turkish border, fell after intense fighting between IS insurgents and other rebels groups. At the same time, suspected US-led coalition airstrikes targeted IS positions in the area. Since Sunday more than 100 fighters have been killed in clashes to control the region, including attempts to liberate the town of Al-Rai, IS's main supply route from Turkey.

FSA rebels seize the strategic town of al-Rai

Syrian rebels captured the strategic northern town of al-Rai from the Islamic State (IS) on Thursday. A Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said that multiple factions, fighting under the banner of the Free Syrian Army (FSA), captured the town which is the main IS supply route from Turkey. According to the Amaq news agency the FSA fighters - backed by US and the Turkish government - took the town after days of intense bombing.  The capture is a key victory for the FSA as they attempt to take the northern city of Aleppo from IS.

Hundreds of civilians missing in Dumair

More than 250 people are feared to have been kidnapped by Islamic State (IS) militants, according to testimonies given to the AFP on Thursday. Family members of hundreds of Syrian workers from a privately-run cement factory have not been able to contact them since Monday. The civilians are believed to have been taken after IS attacked the town of Dumair, east of Damascus.  Simultaneously, IS tried to attack a local airbase but were repelled by the Syrian Army.

Nusra Front shoots down Syrian army jet in Aleppo

The Nusra Front militant group have shot down a Syrian army plane and captured the pilot alive in the north of the country.  The plane was hit over the town of Al-Eis in Aleppo province on Tuesday.  Last week the group forced pro-government forces out of the town following heavy fighting.

Syrian army recaptures al-Qaryatain from IS

The Syrian army has recaptured the town of al-Qaryatain in Homs province from the Islamic State (IS) militant group following days of heavy fighting.  The move comes days after Syrian troops backed by Russian airstrikes retook the ancient city of Palmyra, around 100km east of al-Qaryatain.  State news agency SANA said the army and its allies "fully restored security and stability to al-Qaryatain after killing the last remaining groups of Daesh [IS] terrorists".

Palmyra recaptured from IS

The ancient Syrian city of Palmyra has been recaptured from the Islamic State (IS) militant group.  The Syrian army, backed by Russian airstrikes, seized the Unesco World Heritage site on Sunday following a three-week offensive.  President Bashar al-Assad hailed the operation as a "significant achievement".

CJTF airstrikes destroy IS positions in Al Hawl

An US-led coalition bombed Islamic State (IS) sites in Syria and Iraq with a consecutive series of airstrikes on Wednesday. The Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) stated that at least ten IS fighting positions in north-eastern Syria have been destroyed. The CJTF has been established to target IS sites in Syria and Iraq in order to degrade and defeat the terrorist group settled in the region.

Kurdish groups declare federal region in northern Syria

Several Kurdish groups and the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) voted to create an autonomous federation in northern Syria on Thursday. Under the plans three Kurdish-led autonomous areas will be placed under the umbrella of a new federal system. In a statement the Syrian foreign ministry condemned the action, saying that "creating a union or a federal system... contradicts the Syrian constitution and all the national concepts and international resolutions." According to Idris Nassan, an official in the foreign affairs directorate of Kobani, the proposals for the federation have existed since the start of the Syrian conflict in 2011.

IS commander targeted in US airstrike

An Islamic State (IS) commander has been targeted in a US airstrike near the north-eastern town of al-Shaddadi.   US military officials are investigating whether Abu Omar al-Shishani, who is originally from Georgia, died in the strike last Friday. "Batirashvili is a battle-tested leader with experience who had led IS fighters in numerous engagements in Iraq and Syria," said Pentagon spokesman Peter Cook.

US-led coalition launches airstrikes against IS

The US-led coalition carried out 29 airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) positions in Syria and Iraq on Wednesday. A statement released by the Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) reported that in both Syria and Iraq a large number of logistical features were destroyed, including weaponry, communications equipment and a supply cache.  The CJTF-OIR is supporting the Iraqi security forces' operations against IS, and to date have conducted over 10,000 strikes in Syria and Iraq.

Dozens killed in Tel Abyad fighting

According to the Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) 43 of its militants and 23 civilians have been killed in fighting with Islamic State (IS) militants in the northern town of Tel Abyad.  The YPG said their fighters had killed over 140 IS fighters during several days of fighting around the town, which is close to the Turkish border.  The YPG captured Tel Abyad from IS in June, 2015 during an offensive backed by US-led air strikes.

Four journalists wounded near Turkish border

Four foreign journalists have been wounded near the Turkish border, according to reports in the Russian media.  The victims - from Canada, China, Bulgaria and Russia - were injured in heavy artillery fire in the village of Kinsibba in Latakia province.  The journalists were evacuated by Russian troops.

Temporary ceasefire holds on first day

The temporary ceasefire in Syria has largely held for the first 24 hours.  Russia halted airstrikes on Friday as part of the internationally agreed cessation of hostilities, which does not include the Islamic State (IS) or Nusra Front militant groups.  Low-level clashes were reported in parts of the country, while there was also some shelling in the capital, Damascus.  A total of 74 opposition units have agreed to adhere to the truce.

Syrian army captures key town in Aleppo

The Syrian army has recaptured a key town in the northern province of Aleppo from Islamic State (IS) militants.  The road through the  town of Khanasser is the main supply route between government held areas and the northern city of Aleppo.  The offensive, which came two days after the town fell to IS, was supported by Russian airstrikes which killed at least 20 people.

Twin car bomb attack hits Homs

At least 57 people have been killed and more than 100 others wounded in a twin car bomb attack in the Syrian city of Homs.  The blasts hit the central district of Zahra on Sunday morning, with many of the victims reported to be civilians.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group have claimed responsibility for the attack.

Multiple blasts hit Syrian capital

At least 83 people have been killed in multiple blasts in the Syrian capital, Damascus.  Four explosions were reported in the southern suburb of Sayyida Zeinab, hours after a twin car bomb attack killed 57 people in the city of Homs.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group have taken responsibility for both attacks.

US-led airstrike kills 15 civilians in Hassakeh

A US-led airstrike killed at least 15 civilians in north-eastern Syria on Thursday. The attack targeted four Islamic State (IS) controlled villages, killing several fighters. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights more than 4,000 civilians have been killed since the beginning of the campaign .

MSF hospital destroyed in airstrikes

A hospital supported by Medecins Sans Frontiers has been destroyed in an airstrike in north-western Syria.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nine people were killed and dozens more wounded in the strike in Maaret al-Numan, Idlib province.  The UK-based monitoring group also said Russian aircraft were responsible for the attack. 

President Assad vows to retake all of Syria

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has vowed to retake the entire country "without hesitation" from opposition and rebel forces.  In an interview with the AFP news agency he said the involvement of regional power would mean "that the solution will take a long time and will incur a heavy price".  Assad made the remarks ahead of an international plan to bring about a cessation of hostilities in Syria within a week.

Deadly car bomb rocks Damascus

A car bomb has exploded in the Syrian capital, Damascus, killing several people.  The state-run SANA news agency reported three deaths, while the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least eight people were killed in the blast.  A police officers' club and a busy vegetable market in the north-eastern district of Masaken Barzeh were both hit in the explosion.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group have claimed responsibility for the attack.

Tens of thousands flee Aleppo siege

As many as 70,000 people are reported to have fled heavy fighting in the besieged Syrian city of Aleppo.  Government troops - aided by Russian airstrikes - have been advancing on the northern city, cutting off the main humanitarian supply lines and leaving thousands of civilians trapped.  "The situation in the north countryside of Aleppo is catastrophic," said local journalist Maamoun al-Khateeb. "Civilians are now besieged from three sides and have just one road to the Turkish territories."

Russian airstrike kills at least 21 civilians in Aleppo

Russian airstrikes in the insurgent-held city of Aleppo has killed at least 21 civilians. The Russian forces has been supporting the pro-regime fighters in blocking the progress of the anti-government rebels in the region.

Twin suicide blast kills 50 at Shia shrine

At least 50 people have been killed and more than 100 others wounded in a twin suicide bomb attack at a Shia shrine in Damascus.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group claimed responsibility for the attack on the Sayyida Zeinab shrine in the south of the city.  The incident comes as government and opposition groups gathered for a UN-mediated peace conference in the Swiss city of Geneva.

Russian airstrikes killed 54 people in Aleppo

Suspected Russian airstrikes have killed at least 54 civilians in Syria. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said that in the past 24 hours, many children and women were killed in the extremist-held areas in the northern Syrian province of Aleppo. Russia began airstrikes in September and has been supporting President Bashar Assad's regime to make significant advances in recent months.

Twin suicide blast kills 22 in Homs

At least 22 people have been killed in a twin suicide bomb attack on a security checkpoint in Homs.  More than 100 people are also reported to have been wounded in the blasts, which occurred in the Al-Zahraa district of the city.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Car bomb kills 23 in Aleppo

A car bomb has killed at least 23 people in the northern city of Aleppo, according to activists.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 19 members of the Ahrar al-Sham rebel group and four civilians died in Monday's blast in the Sukari district of the city.  Three buildings were destroyed in the explosion, and dozens of people are believed to be trapped under the rubble.

Dozens killed in suspected Russian airstrikes in Raqqa

At least 42 people have been killed in suspected Russian airstrikes in the north-eastern city of Raqqa. “The Russian airstrikes hit residential buildings in central Raqqa, causing dozens of civilian casualties and mass destruction to private property,” media activist Luay Ayyad told ARA News in Raqqa. Two hospitals were also reported to have been hit in the strikes.

UN convoy heads to besieged town of Madaya

Aid convoys are heading to the besieged Syrian city of Madaya to deliver much needed supplies.  Residents in the city, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, have been trapped for six months by a government blockade and and have had no supplies since October.  The charity Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) said at least 23 people had died of starvation in the city so far, while more than 40,000 others have little or no access to food.

Twenty rebel commanders killed in attacks

Reports have emerged detailing a new wave of attacks in Syria, which have resulted in the deaths of over 20 rebel commanders. The targeted attacks have all occurred since December, and varied between roadside bombs and shootings. The perpetrators are not yet known. At least seven senior commanders of the al-Qaeda affiliate Nusra Front group have been killed, as have several senior members of the Ahrar al-Sham group. The two groups have forged an alliance in the northwest of the country, where they both fight against the Islamic State (IS) terror group. 

Islamic State develop surface-to-air missile technology

Video footage was released on 6 January, appearing to show that Islamic State (IS) militants have devloped and modifed surface-to-air missile systems, likely to have been captured from the Syrian army. The footage also shows the group testing driverless car bombs. It appears to have been shot in a training school in Raqqa.

Possible use of Sarin nerve agent in Syria

The United Nations (UN) says that Sarin nerve agent has possibly been used in Syria. Investigators, looking at eleven allegations of chemical weapons use, found blood samples indicating that "individuals were at some point exposed to sarin or a sarin-like substance". Their report stated that "further investigation would be necessary to determine when or under what circumstances such exposure mught have occurred".

Triple blast kills 16 at Qamishli restaurant

At least 16 people have been killed and 30 others wounded in a triple bomb attack in the northern city of Qamishli.  The blasts, which included a suicide attack, targeted a restaurant in the Kurdish-controlled city, close to the border with Turkey.  The Islamic State (IS) militant group claimed responsibility for the attack.

Suicide bomb attack kills 37 in Homs

At least 37 people have been killed and many more wounded in a suicide bomb attack in the Syrian city of Homs.  According to reports a car bomb also exploded near the scene of the first blast.  The attack was carried out near the Ruqyah medical centre in the central Zahraa neighbourhood.  The incident is the second major attack in Homs since a ceasefire agreement took effect earlier this month.

Bomb kills 16 in central city of Homs

At least 16 people have been killed in a car bomb attack in the central Syrian city of Homs.  In a statement the Islamic State (IS) said it carried out the attack on Saturday: "Abu Ahmed al-Homsi parked his car in the Zahra neighbourhood and exploded it among the 'rafidis' before detonating his explosives belt."  The blast came just days after rebels began withdrawing from the city as part of a ceasefire deal with the government.

Rebels begin withdrawal from Homs

Syrian rebels have started evacuating from the central city of Homs as part of a ceasefire deal with the government.  Around 2,000 rebels and their families are leaving al-Wair for rebel-held areas of Idlib, leaving Homs to the control of Bashar al-Assad government.  Police will return to the city of 75,000 in January once the evacuation is complete.

Three Syrian troops killed in airstrikes

Three Syrian soldiers have been killed and 13 others wounded in a series of airstrikes in Deir Ez Zor province.  The Syrian government said the US-led coalition had carried out the attacks, while the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also confirmed the strikes.  Bombs hit the Saeqa military camp near the town of Ayyash, an area which is largely controlled by the Islamic State (IS) militant group. "We did not strike any vehicles or personnel targets in this area. We have no indication any Syrian soldiers were even near our strikes," the US military said. " We take all allegations of potential collateral damage seriously and will look into every allegation we receive."

Dozens killed in Idlib airstrike

At least 44 people were killed and dozens more wounded in an airstrike on a crowded marketplace in Idlib province.  The strike, which is believed to have been carried out by Russian jets, hit the town of Ariha on Sunday.  Local news channel Ariha al-Youm said cluster bombs were used the strikes.

French airstrikes continue to target IS in Raqqa

At least 33 Islamic State (IS) militants have been killed in airstrikes on Raqqa, the de-facto capital of the group's self-declared caliphate.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes hit checkpoints across the city, although IS claimed the planes had only hit abandoned sites. "What the world needs to know is that we live under IS control on the ground, and constant airstrikes from the sky. We are trapped," a local activist told Al-Jazeera.

French jets target IS militants in Raqqa

French aircraft have carried out multiple airstrikes on Islamic State (IS) positions in the Syrian city of Raqqa. "The first target destroyed was used by Daesh [IS] as a command post, jihadist recruitment centre and arms and munitions depot. The second held a terrorist training camp," a French ministry statement said. The strikes were carried out in response to Friday's terrorist attacks in Paris, which killed at least 132 people and which the Islamic State (IS) have claimed responsibility for.

Russian jets target IS militants in Palmyra

Russian military jets have carried out airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) militants in the ancient eastern city of Palmyra.  In a statement the defence ministry said: "As a result of a direct strike, a fortification, an underground bunker and anti-aircraft artillery were destroyed."  Local activists said Russian jets had also targeted the nearby town of al-Qaryatain, which the militant group captured in August.

Government airstrikes kill 47 near Damascus

At least 47 people have been killed and more than 100 others wounded in government airstrikes near the Syrian capital, Damascus.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government forces fired 12 missiles at the town of Douma, 15km north-east of the capital, on Friday morning. "There are only civilians here - no army and no opposition forces. Residents do not permit any armed person in this area," a civil defence officer told Al-Jazeera.

Islamic State kills three hostages in Palmyra

The Islamic State (IS) militant group has killed three hostages in the ancient Syrian city of Palmya.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the victims were tied to Roman-era columns, which were then blown up using explosives.  IS has already destroyed two 2,000-year-old temples and the Arch of Triumph since seizing the UNESCO World Heritage Site in May.

Turkish military targets Kurdish fighters in northern Syria

Turkey's military has attacked Kurdish fighters in northern Syria, according to Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu. On Monday he said that Turkey had warned the Democratic Union Party (PYD) not to cross to the "west of the Euphrates and that we would hit it the moment it did. We hit it twice."  The Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) said Turkey had opened fire on its troops in the border town of Tal Abyad on Sunday.

Russian airstrikes kill 45 in Latakia

At least 45 people have been killed and dozens more wounded in Russian airstrikes on the coastal city of Latakia. "At least 45 people were killed in Russian air strikes on the Jabal al-Akrad region yesterday afternoon," said Rami Abdel Rahman, director of the British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. "Among them were civilians but we do not have a precise number," he added.

IS militants killed in Syrian airstrikes

At least 40 Islamic State (IS) militants have been killed in airstrikes in Hama province, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  The strikes hit a convoy of 16 vehicles between Saturday night and early Sunday morning.  The Observatory said the Syrian government or Russia could have carried out the strikes.

Kurdish militia prepares for Raqqa assault

The Syrian Kurdish militia the People's Protection Units (YPG) said a major assault on the northern city of Raqqa should be expected "within weeks".  Sipan Hamo, head of the YPG, said that the group were working with a US-led coalition on an operation to liberate the city from Islamic State (IS) militants, who have declared it the capital of their caliphate.

Islamic State (IS) advance on Aleppo

Militants from the Islamic State (IS) are advancing on the northern Syrian city of Aleppo.  According to reports IS fighters are now within 2km from the city after they captured several outlying villages from rival groups.  Overnight an Iranian military commander Brigadier General Hossein Hamedani, who was an advisor to the Syrian army, was killed on the outskirts of the city.  

YPG capture territory from IS in north-east Syria

Fighters from the People's Protection Units (YPG) have captured 17 villages from Islamic State (IS) militants in north-eastern Syria.  The YPG said all villages in the vicinity of Mount Abdulaziz had been liberated following fierce fighting. “At least 106 terrorists of Daesh (IS) were killed during the battles,” the YPG Media Center reported.

Russian jet violates Turkish airspace

A Russian aircraft entered Turkish airspace near the Syrian border on Saturday, prompting Turkey to scramble two F-16 fighter jets. Russia described the violation as a "navigational error", although Turkey's Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu warned: "Even it is a flying bird it will be intercepted". Meanwhile NATO has demanded that Russia "immediately cease" all airstrikes on "the Syrian opposition and civilians".

Syrian army airstrikes kill 27 in Homs

At least 27 people have been killed and dozens more wounded in Syrian government airstrikes in the western Homs province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said six of the victims were children.  The strikes hit the towns of Talbiseh and Zaafaraneh on Wednesday

Russia begins airstrikes against IS in Syria

Russia has started carrying our airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) militants in Syria.  The head of Russia's presidential administration, Sergey Ivanov, said the Federation Council had approved President Vladimir Putin's request to deploy the air force. "The operation's military goal is exclusively air support of the Syrian armed forces in their fight against ISIL," said Ivanov. A US defence official said Russian jets had targeted the western city of Homs.

Hezbollah announces truce with anti-government rebels

The Lebanese Shia militia Hezbollah has agreed a six-month truce with anti-government rebels in three Syrian towns.  Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah said the UN-brokered deal will involve the "evacuation of armed and wounded men from Zabadani to Idlib province in exchange for the evacuation of 10,000 civilians from the villages of Fuaa and Kafraya to zones controlled by the regime". Zabadani has been under siege by the Syrian government and their Hezbollah allies since July, leading to rebels targeting Kefraya and Fuaa, which are both Shia villages.

IS release Kurdish journalist in prisoner exchange

The Islamic State (IS) militant group has released one of two Kurdish journalists captured in north-eastern Syria last year.  Massoud Aqeel and Farhad Hamo were on assignment when they were seized in December, 2014. Aqeel “was freed yesterday as part of a prisoner exchange between Kurdish forces and Daesh,” said an offical from Rudaw, Iraq's Kurdish television station.

Syrian jets target IS militants in Palmyra

Syrian government jets have carried out airstrikes against Islamic State (IS) militants in the ancient eastern city of Palmyra.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 26 people were killed in the strikes, including 12 IS fighters.  The militant group captured the city, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1980, back in May and have since destroyed many of its antiquities.

Rebel rocket fire kills at least 20 in Aleppo

At least 20 people were killed on Tuesday after rebel forces shelled government-held neighbourhoods in Aleppo. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has put the death toll from the rebel bombardment at at least 38, with more than 150 people injured. The group say that it is one of the highest death tolls caused by rebel shelling to date. Also on Tuesday, a car bomb killed seven people in Hassakeh, a day after a twin car bombing by IS militants killed at least 20 people. 

Australia launches first air strikes inside Syria

The Australian government has confirmed that it has launched its first air strikes against IS targets inside Syria. Three air strikes were conducted on Monday, destroying an IS armoured personnel carrier and a crude oil collection point. Australia's Defence Minister Kevin Andrews said two Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) hornets identified the personnel carrier, hidden in an IS compound. "One of the Hornets employed a precision guided weapon to destroy the target," said Mr Andrews.

Twenty killed in car bomb attacks in Hasakah

At least 20 people have been killed in two car bomb attacks in the city of Hasakah. The blasts occurred in the Mahata neighbourhood and the Khashman district of the city. State news agency SANA said that five people were killed in Khashman and 12 in Mahata, with at least 70 others wounded. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights confirmed that the explosions were caused by suicide car bombs, but has not yet provided a toll of casualties. The first blast reportedly struck a checkpoint belonging to Kurdish security forces in Khashman, while the second hit the headquarters of a pro-regime militia in Mahata. The attacks have been attributed to Islamic State militants in the area.

Government troops battle IS for Deir Ezzor airport

At least 54 people have been killed in clashes between government troops and the Islamic State (IS) over control of the Deir Ezzor military airport.  IS militants seized an army post near the strategically important base on Wednesday, getting to with 1km of the airport.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said two children also died in the fighting.

IS making and using chemical weapons

The US government is increasingly confident that Islamic State militants are making and using crude chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. The US has confirmed at least four occasions in both Iraq and Syria where IS has used mustard agents, reportedly being used in powder form. It is believed that the terrorist group has a cell dedicated to building these weapons. The mustard agent was probably being used in powder form and packed inside conventional explosives, such as mortar rounds. 

Jihadist rebels seize key Idlib airbase

Al Qaeda-linked rebels have seized control of a key airbase in the north-western province of Idlib. Abu al-Duhur airbase was under seige for nearly two years by the militants, who have captured most of the province. The militants behind the attack are believed to be a coalition formed of different Islamist groups, including the al-Nusra Front. Syrian state TV has reported that Syrian government troops have "evacuated their positions and moved to another point." The fall of this airbase means that the Syrian military have been completely ousted from north-western Idlib, according to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights. The activist group reports that local pro-government militia forces remain in two Shia villages in Idlib province, but the army has now fully withdrawn.

Two Britons killed in RAF drone strike

Two British Islamic State jihadists were killed by an RAF drone strike in Syria. Cardiff-born Reyaad Khan, 21, and Ruhul Amin, from Aberdeen, died last month in Raqqa, alongside another fighter, in the first targeted UK drone strike on a British citizen. David Cameron told MPs that Khan - the target of the strike - had been plotting "barbaric" attacks on UK soil, and that the "act of self defence" was lawful. Khan was killed in a precision strike on August 21 by a remotely piloted aircraft, "after meticulous planning", while he was travelling in a vehicle.

IS militants seize Syrian oilfield

Islamic State (IS) fighters have seized the last major oilfield under Syrian government control during a series of battles across the region. The Jazal field is now shut and clashes are continuing east of Homs, with casualties being reported on both sides by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Government forces say that have repulsed an attack in the same area, but did not mention the oilfield or comment on how much of the country's energy infrastructure remains under its control. It said it had killed 25 fighters, including non-Syrian jihadists. 

Dozens killed in clashes in Marea

Fighting between IS militants and anti-Assad rebels in Marea have left at least 47 dead. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has reported that 27 IS fighters were killed, and the rest of the fatalities were from other anti-government groups. Marea lies in an area that Turkey and the US have reportedly wanted to turn into an IS-free "safe zone."

France prepares for IS air strikes

President Francois Hollande has ordered preparations to begin for air strikes on IS militants in Syria. France has said that it will start reconnaissance flights on Tuesday with a view to launching attacks on the group. However, France has ruled out sending ground troops into the country. 

Car bomb kills 10 in Assad stronghold

A car bomb has exploded in the western Syrian city of Latakia, killing at least 10 people and wounding 25 others.  The blast happened outside a school on the outskirts of the city, which is a key stronghold of President Bashar al-Assad.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the bombing was the biggest in Latakia since the war started in 2011.

IS militants killed in al-Raqqa airstrikes

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) activists have reported that at least nine Islamic State (IS) militants, including a senior commander, have been killed and 20 others wounded in airstrikes on the outskirts of al-Raqqa. US-led coalition warplanes targeted IS vehicles, with sources informing SOHR activists that the vehicle was in the process of travelling to Aleppo to fight. 

Islamic State gains ground in Damascus

Islamic State (IS) militants have been battling Syrian rebel forces in a southern district of Damascus, bringing them to within 5km of the centre of the capital. On Monday night, IS fighters waged street battles against a loose coalition of rebel groups in Asali, in the southern Qadam district, after seizing two streets there over the weekend. IS advanced from the adjacent Hajar al-Aswad neighbourhood where they have been based since July 2014.

US-trained rebels accuse Turkey of treason

Spokespeople for the US-trained Syrian rebel groups, collectively known as Division 30, have accused the Turkish government of treason for providing information to the rival terrorist group Al-Nusra Front. According to a report published yesterday on the US website McClatchy DC, the abduction of a group of US-trained rebels was organised by Turkish intelligence services. The US website quoted an anonymous official who recently graduated from Division 30, who said that "only the US and Turkey knew about the training plans and the infiltration into Syrian territory by the armed group. We have sources who assure us that the Turks warned the Al-Nusra Front that it would be the target of this group." 

British hacker for IS killed in US drone strike

A British hacker who US and European officials say became a top cyber expert for Islamic State (IS) in Syria has reportedly been killed in a US drone stroke. The source indicated that the US Department of Defense was likely involved in the drone strike that killed British hacker Junaid Hussain, a former Birmingham resident. The strike took place on Tuesday near Raqqa, Syria. 

Syrian army and Rebels agree Zabadani ceasefire

Syrian rebels and forces loyal to President Assad have agreed to a new 48-hour ceasefire to halt fighting in Zabadani. The truce came into force on Thursday morning after talks between the two sides, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has said. Mohammed Abu Qassem, secretary-general of Syria's Tadamun Party and a mediator of the truce confirmed the ceasefire was due to begin at 06.00 local time (03.00 GMT). 

IS captures villages near Turkish border

Islamic State (IS) militants have seized control of five villages, ousting Syrian rebels, in northern Syria. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights on Thursday that this was part of an IS advance into an area where Turkey and the United States are planning to open a new front against the group. 

Islamic State militants launch chemical attack

Islamic State (IS) militants may have used chemical weapons in an attack on a town in northern Syria on Friday. Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) said on Tuesday that it had treated four members of a family who suffered respiratory difficulties and developed blisters after a mortar shell hit their home in Marea. The Syrian American Medical Society also reported receiving 50 patients showing symptoms of chemical exposure. Local rebels say the shells were fired from an ISIS-held village to the east. A spokesman for the Shami Front rebel group has said that half of the 50 mortar and artillery rounds that hit Marea contained sulphur mustard. The powerful irritant and blistering agent - which is commonly known as "mustard gas" but is liquid at ambient temperature - causes severe damage to the skin, eyes and respiratory system and internal organs.

Five dead in rebel rocket fire in Homs

Five people were killed and 20 wounded on Wednesday when rebel rocket fire hit a petrol station in a government-held area of Homs. The missile set fire to a tanker as it was unloading in the Inshaat neighbourhood of Homs. The rocket fire reportedly came from Talbisseh in northern Homs province, where extremist groups led by the al-Nusra Front are located. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has said that the death toll is likely to rise because a number of the wounded are in a critical condition. 

Syrian soldiers killed by IS in besieged Kweiris air base

At least 51 Syrian soldiers have been killed during two separate Islamic State (IS) assaults on the besieged Kweiris air base, which is also known as Rasm-al Abboud. The first assault occurred between the 9-12 August, and another assault started on August 21. At least 40 of those killed in the attacks were officers. 

Palmyra's Baalshamin temple destroyed by Islamic State

Islamic State (IS) militants have destroyed Palmyra's ancient temple of Baalshamin, Syrian officials and activists say. Syria's head of antiquities was quoted as saying the temple was blown up on Sunday. The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that it happened a month ago. IS "placed a large quantity of explosives in the temple of Baalshamin today [Sunday] and then blew it up causing much damage to the temple," Syrian antiquities chief Maamoun Abdulkarim told AFP news agency. "The cella (inner area of the temple) was destroyed and the columns around collapsed," he said. The Baalshamin temple is dedicated to the Phoenician god of storms and fertilising rains, and was almost completely intact. The oldest parts of the temple are thought to have dated from the year 17AD. Residents who had fled from Palmyra also said IS had planted explosives at the temple, although they had done it about one month ago, according to the SOHR.

Five dead in Israeli bombardment

A new Israeli raid on a Syrian army position in the Golan Heights killed at least five people on Friday, Syrian state television reported, describing the victims as unarmed civilians. The car was in a village near Quneitra on the border, but state TV gave no further details. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a British-based activist group monitoring the war, said the strike killed two pro-regime militiamen travelling in a car. However, according to an Israeli defence official, the strike killed at least four Palestinian militants responsible for Thursday's rocket fire on an Israeli village. "We know of at least four of them who were killed," the official said in a statement. Israel's Maariv newspaper said the Israeli strike may have killed five Islamic Jihad militants. It followed more than a dozen Israeli raids on Syrian army positions in the Golan Heights on Thursday, which killed at least one person, in response to cross-border rocket fire.

Typhoid outbreak at Yarmouk refugee camp

There is an outbreak of typhoid in the besieged Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmouk, south Damascus, the UN has warned. A UN Relief and Works Agency (Unrwa) spokesman said at least six cases of the disease have been confirmed so far. The cases of typhoid were confirmed by Unrwa medics after they managed to gained access to Yarmouk residents for the first time since June. Typhoid is caused by a highly contagious bacterium, spread from person to person by food and water that is contaminated with traces of infected faeces or urine. Symptoms include nausea, fever and abdominal pain. If untreated, the disease can lead to complications in the gut and head that kill up to one in five patients.

Suicide bomber hits Kurdish security agency in Syria

A suicide bomber set off a truck bomb outside offices of a Kurdish security agency in northeastern Syria on Wednesday, killing at least ten people, a Kurdish official and the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights have said. There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the attack against Asayish security force in the northeastern city of Qamishli, which is mostly controlled by a Kurdish militia that has been battling ISIS in northern Syria. The Kurdish official said two members of the Asayish had also died in the attack. The Asayish is an internal security agency set up by the autonomous security administration in northern Syria. 

Syrian archaeologist 'killed in Palmyra' by IS militants

The archaeologist who maintained the ancient ruins of Palmyra in Syria is reported to have been killed by Islamic State militants. Khaled Asaad was taken hostage by the group after it seized the UNESCO World Heritage site earlier this year. The family of the 82-year-old scholar said he had been beheaded by IS fighters, according to Syria's director of antiquities, Maamoun Abdulkarim. Mr Asaad had spent more than 50 years working on Palmyra. He was head of antiquities at the ruins. On Tuesday, Mr Abdulkarim said the scholar's family told him that Mr Asaad had been killed and his body hung from a column in Palmyra's main square.

Marketplace air strikes 'kill 80' in Douma

Syrian activists say at least 80 people have died in government air strikes on a marketplace in the rebel-held town of Douma, near Damascus. Around 200 people were reportedly injured in the attack. 

Over 1,200 militants surrender to army in Al-Qalamoun

Over 1,200 rebel fighters have surrendered to Syrian authorities, local Syrian authorities have reported. The militants also surrendered ammunition to the army. The development came after President Assad said in a televised address in July that he would pardon all soldiers who had deserted the army.

Twenty-two Assyrian Christian hostages released by IS

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has reported that 22 Assyrian Christians, all elderly men and women, have been released by Islamic State (IS). According to the head of the Assyrian Federation of Sweden, Afram Yakoub, health issues are believed to have been the cause of their liberation. 

Regime air strikes and rebel fire on Damascus kill at least 50

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has said that at least 50 people have been killed after government air strikes and rebel rocket fire in Damascus. At least 37 civilians have been killed in government air strikes, while up to 13 people have been killed after rebels fired a barrage of rockets into the capital. The Observatory has said that at least four children were among the dead in regime strikes on the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta region, and 120 people were also injured. The death toll is likely to rise further. The air strikes hit the towns of Douma, Saqba, Kafr Batna and Hammouriyeh. At least 10 of the 13 people killed in rebel rocket strikes were civilians, and another 60 were wounded when a barrage of over 50 rockets hit the city.

Ceasefire comes into effect in three towns

Rebel groups and pro-government forces have agreed a 48-hour ceasefire in three Syrian towns. The ceasefire began at 03.00GMT in rebel-held Zabadani, near the Lebanese border, and in Fuaa and Kafraya in Idlib province, under army control. The deal was reportedly agreed between rebels allied to the al-Nusra Front and the Lebanon-based Hezbollah group, allied to President Assad. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has said that negotiations were also takng place on the possible withdrawal of all rebel fighters from Zabadani, as well as a halt to the siege of Fuaa and Kafraya, and the delivery of aid. 

Twenty-five dead in IS assault on key rebel-held town

At least 25 Syrian rebels have been killed in an overnight attack by Islamic State (IS) on an insurgent stronghold in Aleppo. Fighting lasted until dawn in Marea, one of the most significant rebel bastions in the province. The town sits on road linking eastern Aleppo city and the border with Turkey. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least eight IS fighters died, "including four suicide bombers who blew themselves up with explosive belts." Mamun al-Khatib, director of Shahba, an Aleppo-based activist news network, said that "an IS cell infiltrated the town of Marea and its fighters bombed and fired upon civilians." Rebel fighters surrounded the jihadis, prompting them to blow themselves up.

IS kills 18 Syrian soldiers in attack on air base

At least 18 Syrian soldiers, including two generals, were killed in an Islamic State IS) attack on Monday at the Kuweris air base in eastern Aleppo province. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reports that 26 IS militants were also killed in the fighting. The jihadists used three car bombs in the attempt to take over the base, which still remains in the hands of regime forces. 

IS kidnaps 230 civilians in central Syria

The Islamic State (IS) terror group has abducted 230 civilians, including at least 60 Christians, in the central town of Al-Qaryatayn, Syria, shortly after capturing the town. The chief of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdel Rahman, reported that "IS kidnapped at least 230 people, including at least 60 Christians, during a sweep through the town of Al-Qaryatayn." He said that those abducted were wanted by IS for "collaborating with the regime," and their names were on a list used by the jihadists as they swept through the town. Families who tried to flee or hide were tracked down and taken by the jihadists. 

Senior Nusra Front commander killed by Hezbollah in Zabadani

A senior Nusra Front commander has been killed by Hezbollah in the town of Zabadani. An anonymous security source said that Abdel-Rahman Kharita, the deputy Nusra Front commander of the Zabadani area, was killed in a guided missile strike. 

IS storms into strategic town of Qaryatayn

Islamic State (IS) forces have seized a strategically important town located south of Homs. They stormed into Qaryatayn after three of its suicide bombers detonated explosive-laden vehicles in the town, a now standard operating procedure for IS when it launches assaults on fortified positions. As IS attacked the town, the regime launched "more than 25 air raids and rocket strikes from the Al-Hamrat Division base," media activist Baybars Tallawi reported. "A large number of civilians fell injured as a result of the regime's random shelling of Qaryatayn." The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that 28 pro-regime fighters died in the ensuing clashes, while ISIS suffered 24 casualties before they managed to take the town. 

Syrian Army advances in Zabanai

The Syrian Army and Lebanese Hezbollah resistance forces have regained control of more major buildings in al-Zabadani city. At least 13 Takfiri militants were killed in some of the most intense clashes in the city to date, and their weapons and ammunition were destroyed. 

US-trained rebels captured by Nusra Front

The Nusra Front claims to have captured at least five more US-trained rebel fighters in overnight raids on a village in northwest Syria. "Between Monday and Tuesday, The Nusra Front seized at least five rebels from Division 30 [the US-trained force] in the village of Qah, near the Turkish border," Syrian Observatory for Human Rights chief Rami Abdel Rahman said. He reported that the jihadis already captured at least eight rebels from the same US -backed unit last week.According to the Observatory, Nusra Front stormed a camp for internally displaced people in Qah, where the rebel fighters had taken refuge.

Syrian regime reportedly using napalm in Zabadani

Reports have emerged that the Syrian regime has recently used napalm-loaded rockets on rebel positions inthe town of Zabadani. The Alaraby Aljadeed newspaper reported that the regime was using surface-to-surface missiles to deliver the napalm payload, which is banned for use against civilians by the 1980 United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 

Syrian regime retakes ground near Latakia

Syrian troops and Hezbollah fighters have retaken several areas from Rebels in the Sahl al-Ghab region of Hama province. The area borders the Latakia province, a key area of support for President Assad and the home of his ancestral village. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that more than 100 fighters from both sides have been killed in three days of fighting. 

At least 12 killed as Syrian jet crashes into market

A Syrian airforce jet has crashed into a busy market in Ariha, killing at least 12 people and injuring dozens more. It is not yet known whether the plane was shot down. Ariha, once a government stronghold, was captured by opposition fighters and Islamic militants in May. The town is in the northwestern province of Idlib. The Syrian Observation for Human Rights group said that at the time of the crash, the town was under attack by the air force of President Bashar Assad. The crash also destroyed several homes.

US-led raids destroy two IS bridges in Syria

US-led coalition airstrikes have destroyed two key bridges frequently used by the Islamic State (IS) militant group. Rami Adbel Rahman, director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that "thursday night, the coalition destroyed two bridges between the Syrian city of Albu Kamal and the Iraqi border. These bridges are strategically important for IS movements between Albu Kamal and Iraq."

Eighteen dead in ISIS attack on Kurd-held town

At least 18 people have been killed in an ISIS attack on the Kurdish-held town of Sarrin, Aleppo province. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor reported that several ISIS fighters infiltrated the town and attacked a school being used as a base bu Kurdish fighters. One attacker blew himself up and the rest opened fire, with 10 Kurdish fighters being killed in the initial blast and subsequent gun battle. Eight ISIS militants, including the bomber, died in the attack.

Israeli airstrike kills five pro-regime forces

Two Hezbollah fighters and three men from the pro-Syrian regime popular committees in the Druze-populated town have been killed by an airstrike carried out by Israeli jets. The men were travelling in a car by the government-held town of Hader, which lies along the ceasefire line of the Golan Heights, according to the director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdel Rahman.

Three Spanish journalists feared kidnapped in Syria

Three Spanish journalists are missing and feared kidnapping in the northern city of Aleppo.  Antonio Pampliega, Jose Manuel Lopez and Angel Sastre have not been heard from since 12 July, two days after they entered into Syria from neighbouring Turkey. "We don't know (if they were together) doing their investigative reports in Aleppo, just that another three Spanish journalists were kidnapped in the same area nearly a year ago," said Elsa Gonzalez, president of the Spanish Federation of Journalists.

Syrian air force drops barrel bombs in Aleppo

At least 15 people have been killed after the Syrian air force dropped barrel bombs in the northern city of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a pregnant woman and four children were among the victims of the attack in the rebel-held Karam al-Beik district of the city.  Four other people were killed when rebels fired missiles at the government-controlled al-Midan district of the city.

Syria's Aleppo hit by suicide bombing

At least twenty-five have been killed after a suicide bomber from Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate blows himself up at an army outpost in the northern city of Aleppo. The bombings were followed by fierce battles between opposition and regime forces.

 

 

Syrian rebel Islamist groups battle to take Aleppo

Islamist rebels have begun a major offensive against President Bashar al-Assad's military to gain control of Syria's second city Aleppo.  The battle has reportedly led to at least four civilian deaths and many casualties.  More than 230,000 people have been killed in Syria since the conflict began in 2011.

Islamic State (IS) beheads female civilians for the first time in Syria

Two women have been beheaded in the eastern Deir al-Zor province. One of the women was beheaded along with her husband in Deir al-Zor province. In al-Mayadeen, the group beheaded another women and her husband. They were all accused of sorcery. 

Islamic State (IS) kills 120 civilians in Kobane

At least 120 civilians have been killed by Islamic State (IS) militants in the northern border town of Kobane, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  The group entered the town on Thursday, killing 26 civilians in a nearby village before carrying out three suicide bomb attacks.  Rami Abdel Rahman, the UK-based Observatory's director, called the killings one of the "worst massacres" in Syria.

Kurdish forces capture IS base near Raqqa

Kurdish fighters have captured an Islamic State (IS) military base in the northern Syrian city of Raqqa.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Kurdish People's Protection (YPG) had taken control of the Liwa (Brigade) 93 base with the assistance of US-led airstrikes.  The area had been under IS control since August, 2014.

Rebels kill eight in Aleppo attack

At least eight people have been killed in rebel fire in the northern city of Aleppo. "A large rocket knocked down a three-floor building in Sharea Tishreen and killed eight people," the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. Rebel fighters, who control the east of the city, are fighting for control of western districts controlled by government forces.

Dozens killed in rebel shelling in Aleppo

At least 43 people have been killed and more than 190 others wounded in rebel shelling in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said around 300 rockets were fired on government controlled areas of the city on Tuesday.  Elsewhere governet jets have bombed the city of Palmyra in Homs province, killing at least four people.

Nusra Front kills Druze villagers in Idlib

Militants from the Nusra Front have killed at least 20 Druze villagers in the north-western Idlib province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said gunmen attacked the village of Qalb Lawzah on Wednesday afternoon.  The Druze faith is an offshoot of Islam viewed as heretical by the puritanical school of Sunni Islam.

Rebels seize major army base in Deraa province

Rebel fighters have captured a major army base in the southern province of Deraa following heavy fighting with government troops. "The 52nd Brigade base was fully liberated from the regime army," said Major Essam al-Rayes, spokesman for the Southern Front rebel alliance operating in the province.   The fall of the base, near the town of Harak, is the latest in a series of high-profile victories for the rebels.

Syrian air strikes kill dozens in Idlib

At least 49 civilians have been killed in government airstrike in the north-western province of Idlib.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said the raid targeted the rebel-held town of Janudiyah on Monday. "It's a public square, and a lot of people gather there because there are shops," Rami Abdel Rahman, the director of the Observatory, said.

Barrel bomb kills 72 in Aleppo

At least 72 people have been killed by barrel bombs dropped by Syrian government helicopters in the northern province of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 60 people died in the town of al-Bab, with another 12 killed in the city of Aleppo.  The United Nations special envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, condemned the attacks, saying that “indiscriminate” aerial attacks were responsible for “the overwhelming majority of the civilian victims in the Syrian conflict”.

Syrian Islamist rebels seize strategic city of Ariha

A coalition of Islamist rebels have seized the strategic city of Ariha in north-western Idlib province.  The Jaish al-Fateh coalition, which includes the Nusra Front, captured the city after a "lightening offensive", according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.  The fall of Ariha means that the rebels now control virtually all of the province, which borders Turkey to the north and Latakia - a government stronghold - to the west.

Islamic State (IS) militants kill 20 in Palmyra

Islamic State (IS) militants have killed at least 20 people during a public execution in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the victims were accused of fighting for President Bashar Assad's army, while local residents were reportedly rounded up and forced to watch the killings.  SOHR also said that around 240 people have now been killed in the area since IS seized the city last week.

Nusra Front has no plans to target the West

The leader of the Nusra Front militant group, an affiliate of al-Qaeda, has said that the group has no plan to carry out attacks on the West. "We are only here to accomplish one mission, to fight the regime and its agents on the ground, including Hezbollah and others," said Abu Mohammed al-Golani in an interview with al-Jazeera. "Nusra Front doesn’t have any plans or directives to target the West.  We received clear orders not to use Syria as a launching pad to attack the US or Europe in order to not sabotage the true mission against the regime."

IS fighters capture key Syria-Iraq border crossing

The Islamic State (IS) have captured the last border crossing with Iraq following clashes with government forces.  The fall of the al-Walid crossing means that IS now control all of the crossings between Syria and Iraq, apart from a section in Kurdistan.  Earlier this week IS militants seized the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, and the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said the group now controls 50 percent of the country's territory. 

IS militants seize part of ancient city of Palmyra

Islamic State (IS) militants have seized large areas of the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra following heavy fighting with government forces. “The situation is very bad. If only five members of Isis go into the ancient buildings, they’ll destroy everything,” said Syria’s antiquities chief, Maamoun Abdulkarim. He added that the world had a responsibility to save the Unesco World Heritage site.

Syrian rebels seize last army base in Idlib

Syrian rebels have captured the last remaining government army base in the north-western Idlib province.  Regime forces withdrew from the Mastouma base after days of fighting with a coalition of Islamist rebels, including the Nusra Front. "All regime forces have withdrawn from Al-Mastumah, the largest regime base in Idlib, leaving it completely in the hands of opposition fighters," said Rami Abdel Rahman, head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

IS senior leader killed in US Special Ops raid

A senior leader from the Islamic State (IS) has been killed in an operation by US Special Forces in Syria.  Abu Sayyaf was targeted in the raid on Saturday morning in al-Amr in eastern Syria, the US secretary of defence said. "Abu Sayyaf was a senior ISIL leader who, among other things, had a senior role in overseeing ISIL's illicit oil and gas operations -- a key source of revenue that enables the terrorist organization to carry out their brutal tactics and oppress thousands of innocent civilians," said National Security spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan.

Islamic State threaten ancient city of Palmyra

The Islamic State (IS) have advanced to within two kilometres of the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, raising fears that the militant group could destroy the Unesco World Heritage site.  IS fighters have been battling government troops for the nearby town of Tadmur after they advanced across the desert.  In March the group destroyed the ancient sites of Nimrud and Hatra in neighbouring Iraq.

Airstrikes kill 39 in northern Syria

At least 39 people, including 17 children, have been killed in government airstrikes in rebel-held areas of northern Syria.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that jets targeted three adjacent villages in Aleppo province on Wednesday.  Elsewhere 28 government soldiers and 20 Islamic State (IS) militants were killed in fierce clashes near the al-Shaer gas field in eastern Homs province.

Government bombing kills 20 in Aleppo

At least 20 people have been killed by government bombings in a rebel-held area of Aleppo on Tuesday. "Helicopters committed a massacre, dropping a barrel bomb on a mini-bus station in the Fardous district of Aleppo, killing 20 civilians, among them children, and injuring 30 more," the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said, warning that the death toll was likely to rise.  Elsewhere activists said at least 30 people were killed and 27 others wounded in two suicide bomb attacks in Homs province.

Suicide bomber targets army general in Damascus

A suicide bomber has targeted an army general responsible for logistics in central Damascus.  Maj Gen Mohammed Eid was wounded and one of his guards was killed in the blast in the Rukn al-Din district.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Nusra Front had carried out the attack.

Islamist rebels capture army base in Idlib

Islamist rebels seized an army base in the north-western province of Idlib on Monday following a suicide bomb attack. "A truck with two tonnes of explosives penetrated one of the entrances of the camp that made it easier to take over the camp," Sheikh Husam Abu Bakr, a rebel commander from Ahrar al-Sham movement said. Meanwhile more than 40 civilians have been killed in the province by shelling from government forces, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Syrian rebels capture key town of Jisr al-Shughur

Islamist rebels have captured the key strategic town of Jisr al-Shughur in north-western Idlib province.  A coalition of Islamist groups, including the Nusra Front, began the assault on Thursday and heavy fighting was still reported on Saturday.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 60 pro-government fighters were killed in the clashes, while Syrian state media said the army had redeployed to the town's surroundings "to avoid civilian casualties".

Rebels clash with Islamic State (IS) near Damasucs

At least 42 people have been killed in clashes between rebel groups and Islamic State (IS) fighters north of the capital, Damascus. “At least 30 Islamist rebels and 12 fighters from ISIS were killed in fighting since Tuesday” in the hilly region of Qalamoun, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.  The groups were fighting in the key strategic region of Qalamoun, which is largely controlled by government and allied fighters from the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.

South-eastern suburbs of Damascus rocked by government shelling

At least 10 people, including five children, have been killed in government shelling in south-eastern suburbs of Syria's capital, Damascus.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the victims died when shells hit the town of Zabdead, adding that several homes were also destroyed.  Heavy clashes have also been reported between government forces and rebel fighters in Eastern Ghouta.

IS militants seize Yarmouk district in Damascus

Islamic State (IS) militants have seized control of large parts of the Yarmouk district in Syria's capital, Damascus. Anwar Abdel Hadi, director of political affairs for the Palestine Liberation Organisation in Damascus, told the AFP news agency that "fighters from ISIL launched an assault this morning on Yarmuk and they took over the majority of the camp" on Wednesday.  The UN says around 18,000 Palestinian refugees remain in the area, down from 150,000 before the current conflict began.

Rebels capture historic town near Jordanian border

Syrian rebels have seized the historic town of Bosra al-Sham after days of heavy fighting with government troops. "Rebels and Islamist fighters pushed out National Defence Forces and Popular Defence Committee militias who were defending Shiite districts of the town," said the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. The town, located in the Daraa Governorate near the southern border with Jordan, is a UNESCO world heritage site.

Government helicopter crew kidnapped in Idlib province

A Syrian government helicopter has crashed in a rebel-held area in the north-west of the country.  Four members of the crew were kidnapped while another was killed when the helicopter went down in Jabal al-Zawiya in Idlib province.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the fate of sixth crew member was unknown.

Deadly air strike hits IS run refinery

At least 30 people have been killed in a US-led coalition air strike on an oil refinery run by Islamic State (IS) near Tel Abyad in northern Syria.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the deceased were IS militants and refinery workers.  US officials said the group are using oil as a major source of revenue, while back in November the UN estimated that the group made between $800k to $1.6m a day from oil sales.

Dozens killed in Aleppo fighting

At least 20 members of Syria's security forces and 14 rebels have been killed in fighting around an intelligence headquarters in Aleppo.  The Nusra Front claimed responsibility for the attack, which started when a bomb exploded in a tunnel near Air Force Intelligence's HQ in the western Jamiat al-Zahra district on Wednesday. "The goal was to storm the building and to control it, but they failed," Rami Abdelrahman, the director of the UK-based monitoring group, told the AFP news agency.

Assyrian Christians kidnapped in north-eastern Syria

At least 90 Assyrian Christians have been kidnapped by fighters from the Islamic State (IS) in north-eastern Syria.  According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights the abductions took place during a series of dawn raids on Tuesday near the town of Tal Tamr.  The incident comes as Kurdish fighters supported by US-led air strikes continue to make gains in IS-held areas in the region.

Damascus bus bombing kills seven

At least seven people have been killed and 20 others wounded after a bomb exploded on a bus in the Syrian capital, Damascus, on Sunday.  The bus, which was carrying Lebanese Shia pilgrims, was travelling through the Souq al-Hamadiyeh district when the device exploded.  The Nusra Front rebel group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Rocket fire kills seven in Damascus

At least seven people have been killed in rocket fire in the Syrian capital, Damascus.  Five civilians and two soldiers died when rebels launched more than 50 rockets from Eastern Ghouta on Sunday.  The Islam Army had earlier warned that it would target the capital if government continued to carry out air strikes on Eastern Ghouta.

Islamic State (IS) demands $200m for two Japanese hostages

Islamic State (IS) has released a video in which a militant has demanded a $200m ransom for the release of two Japanese hostages.  The militants has threatened two kill the two men, identified as journalist Kenji Goto Jogo and company operator Haruna Yukawa, unless the ransom is paid within 72 hours. "If true, the act of threat in exchange of people’s lives is unforgivable and we feel strong indignation," Japan’s top spokesman, Yoshihide Suga, told journalists.

Religious police kidnapped in Syria

Several members of a religious police force created by the Islamic State (IS) militant group have been kidnapped in Syria.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the group had been ambushed by unknown gunmen in the eastern city of Mayadin. The incident came a day after the deputy leader of the regional religious police force was found beheaded in the city. "There is an escalation in the operations against the Hesbah because they are arresting people and insulting their dignity for reasons like smoking", said Rami Abdel Rahman, the Observatory's director.

Barrel bombs kill 45 in Syria

At least 45 people have been killed by barrel bombs dropped by government planes and helicopters in north-eastern Syria.  Activists said the bombs targeted al-Bab and Qabaseen near Aleppo on Thursday night.  The region is one of the strongholds of the Islamic State (IS) militant group and the Syrian regime has been increasing air strikes in the area in recent weeks.

Islamic rebels seize two army bases in Idlib province

Islamic militants have seized control of two key army bases in the northern province of Idlib.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said members of the al-Nusra Front, along with fighters from the Jund al-Aqsa group, captured the Wadi al-Deif base on Monday before launching an assault on the nearby Hamidiya base.  At least 31 government soldiers and 12 militants were reportedly killed in the fighting.

Three Syrian journalists killed in missile attack

Three Syrian journalists from an opposition television channel have been killed in missile strike in the south-west of the country.  The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) said two reporters and a cameraman from the Orient News channel were targeted by Syrian government troops near Sheikh Meskin in Deraa province. "So many Syrian journalists have paid the ultimate price for reporting on this conflict, but even for Syria, the loss of three journalists in one attack is devastating," said CPJ Middle East and North Africa Program Co-ordinator Sherif Mansour.

Government air strikes kill 36 in Raqqa

At least 36 people have been killed and more than 100 others wounded in a series of air strikes by Syrian government planes in the northern city of Raqqa.  The strikes targeted a number of residential districts in the city, which is controlled by the Islamic State (IS) militant group.  Back in June IS declared Raqqa the capital of its self-declared caliphate.

Dozens killed by barrel bombs at Idlib camp

At least 60 people have been killed and dozens of others wounded after a government helicopter dropped barrel bombs on a camp for displaced people in the northern Idlib province.  Local activists said the incident took place on Wednesday at the Abedin camp.  The US said it was "horrified" by the reports, although the attack could not be independently verified.

Islamic State launches fresh assault on Kobane

Fighters from the Islamic State (IS) militant group have launched a fresh assault on the Syrian border town of Kobane.  Heavy fighting erupted on Monday night as IS fighters attempted to cut off the border with Turkey to prevent Iraqi Kurdish reinforcements from reaching the town.  Meanwhile the US have carried out further airstrikes on IS positions in the area.

Nusra Front rebels kidnap Franciscan priest in north-west

A Franciscan priest and 20 other Christians have been kidnapped by the Nusra Front in north-western Syria.  Father Hanna Jallouf, parish priest at Qunyeh, was captured on the evening of 5 October according to the Custody of the Holy Land. "We don't know what to do. We don't know with whom to talk, we're totally unable to get in touch with anyone," said Franciscan official Father Pierbattista Pizzaballa.

Children killed in twin Homs bombing

At least 47 children are among 54 people killed in a twin bomb attack in the central city of Homs. “Two terrorist explosions near the Akrameh al-Makhzumi school and the Zaim hospital caused deaths and injuries,” Syrian state television reported. The school lies in the Akrameh neighbourhood of the city, whose residents are mainly Alawite, like President Bashar al-Assad.

Turkey sends troops to Syrian border to halt Islamic State

Turkey has sent dozens of armoured vehicles to the Syrian border after Islamic State fighters closed in on a key Kurdish town.  Several explosions were reported inside Turkey from near the town of Kobane, while Turkish trooped also returned fire.  The Turkish government is expected to pass a motion authorising  its forces to operate across the border into Syria and Iraq as part of the US-led coalition against the Islamic State.

Israel shoots down Syrian jet over Golan

Israel's military has shot down a Syrian fighter plane after it "infiltrated Israeli airspace" over the Golan Heights.  In a statement the military said Patriot missile air defence systems shot down the Russian-built Sukhoi plane on Tuesday, the first time in three decades that Israel has downed a Syrian plane. "We cannot tolerate any penetration of the Israeli airspace, so we had to shut him down even though we understand that his intention was not to attack us,” said Israeli General Ram Shmueli.

US-led airstrikes target Islamic State in Syria

The US and several Arab allies have launched the first airstrikes against Islamic State militants in Syria. "I can confirm that US military and partner nation forces are undertaking military action against ISIL terrorists in Syria using a mix of fighter, bomber and Tomahawk land attack missiles," a spokesman for the department of defence said.  The US did not confirm what areas were targeted in the operation; however local reports said positions around Raqqa were hit.  A number of Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the UAE also took part in the strikes.

Dozens killed in Syria airstrikes

At least 48 people have been killed in airstrikes by the Syrian government in Homs, according to activists.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that government planes had bombarded the rebel-held town of Talbiseh for two days.

Rebel leader killed in suicide bomb attack

The leader of the Ahrar al-Sham rebel group, Hassan Abboud, has been killed along with dozens of other people in a suicide bomb attack in Idlib province.  Mr Abboud was attending a meeting of top ranking rebel commanders at an underground bunker near Ram Hamdan, reportedly to discuss a strategy to fight the rival Islamic State group.  Although they have not formally taken responsibility for the attack, Islamic State are thought to have been behind the attack.

US journalist killed by Islamic State militants

The Islamic State militant group have released a video which claims to show the beheading of US journalist Steven Sotloff.  Last month Mr Sotloff, who was captured in Syria in 2013, appeared in a video which showed fellow US journalist James Foley meeting a similar fate, sparking outrage across the world.  In the latest video the militant carrying out the killing said "I'm back, Obama, and I'm back because of your arrogant foreign policy towards the Islamic State, because of your insistence on continuing your bombings and on Mosul Dam, despite our serious warnings."

UN soldiers captured in Golan Heights

Syrian rebels have captured 43 UN peacekeepers in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.  A UN spokesman said the troops, all from Fiji, were held near Quneitra during fighting rebels and goverment forces.  A further 81 Filipino soldiers are reported to be trapped under seige near Rwihinah.

Islamic State executes 250 Syrian soldiers

The Islamic State has released a video which appears to show around 250 Syrian soldiers being marched through the Syrian countryside before they were executed.  The troops had been captured during the assault on the Raqqa air base in the north of the country. “The 250 shabeeha taken captive by the Islamic State from Tabqa in Raqqa have been executed,” read a caption that ran with the video.

Heavy fighting over Tabqa air base

Hundreds of people have been killed in heavy fighting between Islamic State fighters and Syrian troops over the Tabqa military air base in Raqqa province.  The Syrian government announced that its forces had lost control of the base, saying "after heavy fighting by the forces defending the Tabqa airbase, our forces implemented a regrouping operation after the evacuation of the airbase."

Islamic State fighters seize towns in Aleppo

Fighters from the Islamic State (IS) have seized control of several towns and villages in the northern province of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the militants had managed to seize six towns north of the city of Aleppo, close to the border with Turkey. The Observatory said the group took the areas "after fierce clashes with rebels and Islamist battalions that remained in the area after Nusra Front and other Islamist battalions withdrew at the end of July."

Seven killed in Homs bombing

At least seven people have been killed in a bombing in the central city of Homs, while dozens of Islamic fighters were reportedly killed during clashes with troops at a nearby gas field.  The state news agency SANA said that troops retook the Sha'ar gas field after a "precise operation in which dozens of terrorists were killed".

Iraq confirm Syrian airstrikes on ISIL targets

Iraq's Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has confirmed that Syrian jets have carried out airstrikes on Sunni militants along the two country's shared border.  The warplanes are reported to have targeted fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) near the Iraqi border town of Qaimon Tuesday.  Mr Maliki told the BBC "there was no co-ordination involved. But we welcome this action. We actually welcome any Syrian strike against ISIL... But we didn't make any request to Syria".  

Syrian jets strike ISIL-held towns in east

Syrian jets have targeted several rebel-held towns along the eastern border with Iraq, killing at least 16 people and wounding several others.  Fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) were targeted in five separate raids on Saturday.

Car bomb kills dozens in Hama province

At least 34 people have been killed and around 50 others wounded after a car bomb exploded in the central Hama province.  The state news agency Sana said the device exploded in the government-controlled Horrah village, claiming that "terrorists" were responsible for it.

Dozens killed in Aleppo barrel bombings

Activists claim at least 60 people have been killed after Syrian army helicopters dropped barrel bombs on rebel-held districts of Aleppo.  The majority of bombs fell on the al-Sukari and Ashrafieh neighbourhoods, which the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said was packed with residents waiting for food aid at a distribution centre.

President Bashar al-Assad re-elected for third term

Syria's president, Bashar al-Assad, has been re-elected for a third term in office after security 88.7 percent of the vote in Tuesday's elections.  In a televised address the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court said "I declare the victory of Dr Bashar Hafez al-Assad as president of the Syrian Arab Republic with an absolute majority of the votes cast in the election."  Voting only took place in government-controlled areas and many opposition groups and foreign governments have denounced the vote as a farce.

Polls open for Syria's presidential elections

Voting is under way in Syria's presidential elections, which incumbent Bashar al-Assad is almost certain to win.  The country's various opposition groups have called the poll a "farce" as it prevents any candidates from outside the regime from taking part, while many international observers have also described it as a sham.  Voting is only taking place in government-controlled areas and the only other two candidates are both virtually unknown.

Chemical weapons inspectors attacked in Hama province

A group of chemical weapons inspectors have been attacked in Hama province.  The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) said the 11 members of its team were safe and well, despite earlier reports that they had been kidnapped.  The team were heading to the site of an alleged chlorine gas attack in Kafr Zaita when they were targeted by unknown gunmen.

Mortar fire kills 21 at pro-Assad rally in Deraa

At least 21 people have been killed by mortar fire at an election rally in support of Syria's president, Bashar al-Assad, in the city of Deraa.  The attack occurred as people gathered in a tent in the government-held city in the south of the country.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said more than 30 people were wounded in the attack, which comes just over a week before the country's presidential elections.

Government missile strike kills 13 in Marea

At least 13 people have been killed in a government missile strike in the north-eastern town of Marea.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the missile was fired from an army warplane overnight.  A local activist told the Associated Press that ten of the victims belonged to the same family - a couple and their eight children. Elsewhere another airstrike killed 10 people in the nearby town of Azaz.

UK journalists beaten during brief capture near Aleppo

A reporter and a photographer from the UK newspaper The Times have been beaten and shot after they were captured by a group of rebel fighters in northern Syria.  Anthony Loyd and Jack Hill were travelling from the besieged city of Aleppo to Turkey when they were seized, before being taken to the town of Tall Rifat.  Mr Loyd was shot twice in the leg to prevent him from escaping before the Islamic Front, a coalition of rebel groups, intervened and secured their release.

Car bomb kills 29 near Turkish border crossing

At least 29 people have been killed and dozens more wounded after a car bomb exploded near a border crossing between Syria and Turkey.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the blast occurred at a garage near the Bab al-Salameh crossing in the northern Aleppo province.  The militant group the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) are suspected of carrying out the attack.

Rebels evacuating from crumbling Homs

Hundreds of Syrian rebels are being evacuated from the central city of Homs, which has been largely destroyed by three years of fighting.  Around 1,000 had left their stronghold in the Old City on Wednesday, paving the way for civilians to return to the area.  However, the UN's resident coordinator, Yacoub El Hillo, warned that the city was currently "uninhabitable" and required extensive rebuilding.

Bomb kills 30 government soldiers in Idlib

At least 30 Syrian soldiers have been killed after a bomb exploded near a checkpoint in the north-western province of Idlib.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the blast took place in a tunnel beneath the troops outside the city of Maarat al-Nu'man.  The Islamic Front and the Shields of the Revolution Council are reported to have carried out the attack.

Aleppo school hit by government air strike

At least 18 people have been killed, 10 of them children, in a government air strike in the northern city of Aleppo.  According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights one of the missiles hit the Ain Jalou school in the eastern Ansari district of the city. UNICEF said in a statement it was "outraged by the latest wave of indiscriminate attacks perpetrated against schools and other civilian targets across Syria".  

Car bomb kills 37 in Homs

At least 37 people have been killed and 85 others wounded after a car bomb exploded in the central city of Homs.  Syrian state TV agency SANA said the blast occurred in the largely Alawite district of Zahra.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also confirmed the bombing; however they reported that 13 people died.

Mortar fire kills 12 in Damascus

Twelve people have been killed and dozens more wounded by mortar fire in central Damascus, according to Syrian state media agency SANA.  Two of the shells hit the Badr al-Din al-Hussein technical institute in the mainly Shia Shaghour neighbourhood.  The government said "terrorists" were responsible for the attack.

Iraqi army helicopters target 'jihadist convoy' in Syria

Iraqi military helicopters have targeted a self-declared jihadist convoy inside eastern Syria, killing at least eight people.  The convoy of fuel tankers was reportedly heading to supply ISIS fighters in Iraq's Anbar province.  Brigadier General Saad Maan said there was no coordination with the Syrian regime over the strike near the city of al-Bukamal, which is the first time Iraq has carried out an attack across the border.

Air strike on Aleppo market kills 24

At least 24 people have been killed in a goverment air raid near the northern rebel-held city of Aleppo.  Activists said army helicopters dropped barrel bombs on a vegetable market in the town of Atareb, adding that the victims were all civilians.  Another strike reportedly targeted the nearby village of Tal Rifaat.

Army seizes towns near Lebanon border

The Syrian army, backed by Hezbollah fighters, has seized two towns near the border with Lebanon, according to state media.  The troops captured Sarkha from rebels on Monday morning reclaiming the nearby village of Maaloula. "The army has taken full control of Maaloula and restored security and stability. Terrorism has been defeated in Qalamoun" a security official told the AFP news agency.  Three Lebanese journalists from the al-Manar TV station were killed during the fighting.

Car bombings kill 25 in Homs

At least 25 people have been killed and more than 100 others wounded after two car bombs exploded in the Syrian city of Homs.  The state news agency SANA said the blasts struck a busy street in the Karam al-Luz district of the city.

Dutch priest shot dead in Homs

A Dutch priest has been shot dead at a monastery in the Syrian city of Homs.  Father Francis van der Lugt, 75, had lived in Syria for years and had refused to leave the besieged city while there were still Christians in the area. A secretary for the Dutch Jesuit Order said "a man came into his house, took him outside and shot him twice in the head in the street in front of his house,".

Turkish military shoots down Syrian jet

The Turkish military has shot down a Syrian jet for violating its airspace in the southern Hatay province.  Turkish Prime Minister Recep TayyipErdogan said "if you violate my airspace, our slap after this will be hard", while Syria denounced the action as "unprecedented and unjustifiable".

Syria closes Lebanese border after clashes

Syria has closed a border crossing with Lebanon after clashes between troops and rebel fighters left 12 people dead.  Dozens of people fled across the border into Lebanon seeking refugee from the fighting, leading to the closure of the Bqaiaa crossing in Wadi Khaled.

Sunni rebels kidnap 94 Alawite civilians

Sunni rebel fighters claim to have kidnapped 94 Alawite women and children to use as leverage for a prisoner exchange deal.  In a video released on al-Jazeera the group said that the civilians were abducted in August from villages near the coastal city of Latakia.  The rebels said they were willing to exchange the civilians for 2,000 prisoners detained for over a year.

Government aircraft targets border town

Syrian military helicopters have carried out several raids on the Lebanese town of Arsal in the Bekaa valley.  Lebanon's state media said that a Syrian woman and a young girl were wounded in one of the raids.

Government forces says 175 rebels killed in ambush

The Syrian government has said that its troops have ambushed a group of opposition fighters near Damascus, killing 175 of them.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights confirmed that at least 70 died in the fighting in the Eastern Ghouta suburb to the east of the capital.  A field commander told the state news agency SANA that most of the rebels killed were from the al-Nasra Front.

Senior rebel commander killed in Aleppo

A senior rebel commander linked to al-Qaeda has been killed in a twin suicide blast in the northern city of Aleppo.  Abu Khaled al-Suri, the representative of al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahri in Syria, is believed to have been killed by rival fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS).  He was inside the compound of his militant group Ahrar al-Sham when the attack occurred.

Field hospital hit by car bomb near Turkish border

At least 14 people have been killed and 70 others wounded after a car bomb exploded near a field hospital in northern Syria, close to the Turkish border.  The device exploded in the town of Atmeh in Hatay province, close to a hospital owned by a pro-opposition businessman.

Car bomb hits Turkey-Syria border post

A car bomb has exploded at a border post in southern Turkey, wounding at least 40 people.  A Turkish official said that the blast occurred at the Oncupinar border post, which is next to a camp housing thousands of Syrian refugees.

Hundreds of civilians evacuated from Homs

Around six hundred people have been evacuated from the besieged city of Homs in central Syria, despite ongoing fighting between rebels and government troops.  The United Nations and the Syrian Red Crescent escorted the evacuees - mainly women, children and the elderly - from the city's Old Quarter on Sunday.  The operation was carried out during a three-day ceasefire in the city; however this was frequently broken and on Saturday aid workers were trapped under mortar fire for several hours. 

Rebels announce fresh Aleppo offensive

Syrian rebels have announced a fresh military offensive in the northern province of Aleppo following an increase in government airstrikes on opposition-held areas.  According to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights rebels from the Ahrar al-Sham and al-Nusra Front seized control of most of Aleppo central prison on Thursday, freeing at least 300 prisoners in the process.

Dozens killed in Aleppo airstrikes

At least 136 people have been killed in three days of government airstrikes in the northern city of Aleppo.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that 120 people died over the weekend, while a further 16 were killed in raids on Monday morning.  The residential area of Tareq al-Bab was particularly badly hit by the barrel bombings, which campaign groups have condemned as being indiscriminate.

Government shelling kills 16 in Aleppo

At least 16 people have been killed in government shelling in a rebel-held area of Aleppo in northern Syria.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that heavy fire targeted the area of Qadi Askar in the east of the city.  The continued fighting comes as the Syrian government and opposition failed to reach any agreement at a week-long peace conference in Geneva.

Twin car bomb blast kills 16 at Syria-Turkey border post

A double suicide car bombing has killed at least 16 people at the Bab al-Hawa border post between Syria and Turkey.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the first car exploded outside the crossing before a second blast inside the post.

Rebel fighting leaves nearly 500 dead

Almost 500 people have now been killed in clashes between an alliance of rebels and fighters from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) across northern Syria.  On Saturday morning a car bomb exploded in the town of Saraqeb, killing at least five militants from the Ahrar al-Sham brigade.

Car bomb kills 18 in Hama

At least 18 people have been killed after a car bomb exploded near a school in the central province of Hama.  The blast in the village of al-Kaffat comes as a coalition of rebel groups continues to battle members of the Jihadist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) across the north of the country.

Rebels seize ISIS headquarters in Aleppo

An alliance of rebel fighters have seized the headquarters of the jihadist group Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in the northern city of Aleppo.  The Syrian Observatory of Human Rights said that the rebels had released dozens of people who were being held at the site in the Qadi Askar district of the city.  On Tuesday an ISIS spokesman said the group would "crush" opposition fighters and claimed that members of the rival groups were "legitimate targets".

Rival rebel groups clash in northern Syria

Fighting has been reported across northern Syria between an alliance of rebel groups and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS).  The al-Qaeda affiliated ISIS has been accused of being behind several kidnappings and human rights abuses, including torture and public executions, around its main stronghold of Raqqah.  According to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights at least 34 ISIL fighters have been killed in the last three days of fighting.

Turkish journalist kidnapped in northern Syria

A Turkish journalist has been kidnapped by suspected Islamist rebels in northern Syria. Bunyamin Aygun, who worked for the daily newspaper Milliyet, is reported to have been captured on 26 November by the same group that is holding two Spanish journalists.

Government air strikes kill 76 in Aleppo

At least 76 people have been killed and dozens more wounded after the Syrian government carried out a series of air strikes on rebel-held areas of Aleppo.  The 'barrel-bombs', which are crude explosive-filled cylinders, were dropped from army helicopters in more than 10 different areas of the city.

Islamist rebels kill 10 in Adra clashes

At least 10 people have been killed in an attack by Islamist rebels in the southern town of Adra.  Militants from Liwa al-Islam and the al-Nusra Front are also reported to have abducted a number of people from their homes.  The religiously mixed town has witnessed heavy fighting between the militants and government forces this week.

Spanish journalists kidnapped in northern Syria

The Spanish newspaper El Mundo has confirmed that two of its journalists were kidnapped by Islamic militants back in September.  Javier Espinosa and Ricardo Garcia Vilanova were seized from a checkpoint in the northern province of Raqqa, a few miles from the Turkish border.  The paper also stated that the two men were seized by members of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).

Iraqi cameraman killed by ISIL rebels

An Iraqi freelance cameraman has been executed in northern Syria by a rebel group linked to al-Qaeda.  Reporters Without Borders said Yasser Faysal Al-Joumaili had been seized by members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) group on 04 December in the northern province of Idlib.  According to the charity Mr Joumaili is the first foreign journalist to be murdered by an armed opposition group in northern Syria’s ‘liberated’ areas.

Rockets attacks kill 18 in Aleppo

At least 18 people have been killed and 30 others wounded after rebels fired rockets at government-held areas in the northern city of Aleppo.  Blasts were reported in the Meridian and al-Furqan areas of the city, which is largely split between government and rebels held districts.

Suicide bomb kills four in central Damascus

At least four people have been killed in a suicide bomb attack in the centre of the capital, Damascus, according to the state news agency Sana.  The reports said that "a terrorist suicide bomber wearing an explosive belt blew himself up in the Jebbeh district of the Jisr al-Abyad neighbourhood, causing deaths and injuries".  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said that two people had been killed in the blast, which appeared to have targeted a government building.

Peace talks scheduled for January

The United Nations has said that it has reached an agreement with the Syrian government and opposition negotiators to hold peace talks in January.  The group's secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, said the conference will be held in Geneva on 22 January with an aim to end the country's civil war.

Senior rebel commander killed in air strike

A senior rebel commander has died from his injuries following a government air strike near the city of Aleppo.  Abdelqader Saleh, leader of the Islamist al-Tawhid Brigade, died in a hospital in Gaziantep, Turkey where he had been taken for treatment.  The rebel group, estimated to have between 8,000 and 10,000 fighters, was formed in July, 2012 when a dozen regional brigades joined to form a single fighting unit.

Eight killed in Damascus bombing

At least eight people have been killed after a large bomb exploded in the centre of Damascus.  State media agency SANA reported that a further 50 people were wounded by the blast, which occurred at the entrance to a railway office in Hijaz Square.

Israel carries out air strike on Syrian military base

Israeli jets have carried out an air strike on a military base in the northern province of Latakia.  A US official confirmed that the strike targeted Russian-made missiles which Israel believed were intended for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.

Government troops seize strategic northern town

Syrian government forces have captured the key northern town of Safira after days of heavy fighting with rebel groups.  The town, situated next to a key strategic road, had been controlled by rebel fighters for more that a year.

Syria chemical weapons equipment destroyed

Syria has destroyed all of its chemical weapons production and mixing facilities, according to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).  The watchdog said its teams had inspected 21 out of 23 chemical weapons sites, while the announcement comes a day before the deadline set by the group for the disarmament programme.

UN launch polio vaccination drive across Syria

The United Nations are carrying out a widespread vaccination drive in Syria after an outbreak of polio in the country.  So far 22 people, mostly young children, are reported to have been contracted the disease in the eastern province of Deir Ezzor.  

Car bomb kills 40 outside Damascus mosque

At least 40 people have been killed after a car bomb exploded outside a mosque in the Syrian capital, Damascus.  The blast occurred in the rebel-controlled district of Suq Wadi Barada as worshippers were leaving the Osama bin Zeid mosque following Friday prayers.

WHO reports polio outbreak in Syria

The World Health Organisation (WHO) have reported the first outbreak of polio in Syria in 14 years.  Initial tests from the eastern province of Deir al-Zor have come back positive, while doctors have also seen an increase in typhoid, hepatitis and the parasite disease leishmaniasis as the country's health infrastructure continues to break down.

Suicide bombing kills 43 in Hama

At least 43 people have been killed after a suicide truck bomb exploded near the central city of Hama.  The state news agency SANA said that rebels had driven the vehicle into a government checkpoint on the outskirts of the government-held city.

Bus bombing kills 21 in Deraa province

At least 21 people have been killed after a minibus exploded in the southern province of Deraa.  Opposition activists claim that the bus hit a mine which had been planted by government forces in the Tal al-Jumua area.

Car bomb kills 22 in Idlib province

At least 22 people have been killed after a car bomb exploded in the north-western town on Darkush in Idlib province.  The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the death toll was expected to rise due to the large number of people who suffered serious injuries.  The bombing comes a day after seven aid workers were kidnapped by gunmen in the province.

Red Cross members kidnapped in Syria

Six members of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a worker from the Syrian Red Crescent have been kidnapped by gunmen in Syria.  The ICRC confirmed that the aid workers were abducted as they travelled on the main road between Sarmin and Saraqeb in Idlib province.

Deadly car bombing hits southern Damascus

At least seven people have been killed after a car bomb exploded in the southern Tadamon district of Damascus.  The state news agency Sana said that "terrorists" were responsible for the blast.

Spanish journalist kidnapped in Syria

A Spanish newspaper has confirmed that one of its correspondents, Marc Marginedas, was abducted in Syria on 4 September.  Barcelona's El Periodico said that Marc Marginedas, who was seized in the outskirts of the western city of Hama, is believed to be in the hands of jihadist rebel group.

Syrian helicopter shot down by Turkish warplanes

Turkish forces have shot down a Syrian helicopter after it crossed the border into Turkish airspace.  According to Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister Bulent Arinc two F-16 jets repeatedly warned the Mi-17 helicopter after it ventured near the town of Yayladagi in Hatay province.

US and UK consider military intervention

The US and UK governments are discussing a possible military intervention in Syria in response to last week's chemical weapons attack, which left more than 300 people dead.  Walid Moualem, Syria's foreign minister, has denied that his government used chemical weapons; however, his American counterpart John Kerry said "there is very little doubt in our mind that the Syrian regime is culpable".

UN inspectors targeted by sniper fire outside Damascus

A vehicle carrying the UN chemical weapons inspectors has been targeted by sniper fire in the western district of Muadhamiya in Damascus.  A spokesman for the UN Secretary-General said that no injuries were reported, although the vehicle was severely damaged.  Both the Syrian government and rebel groups blamed each other for the attack. 

Hundreds reportedly killed in chemical attacks

Syrian opposition groups claim that more than 200 people have been killed in a chemical weapons attack near the capital, Damascus.  The reports said that pro-government forces fired rockets with poisonous gas heads at rebel positions the eastern suburbs of Zamalka, Arbeen and Ein Tarma.  The government said the claims are "totally false", although footage has emerged which appears to corroborate the opposition's version of events.

Rebels fighters killed in Adra ambush

At least 62 rebel fighters have been killed in an ambush by government forces near the town of Adra, 35km from the capital Damascus.  The Syrian military claim that the rebels were part of the al-Nusra Front, a group linked to al-Qaeda.

Syrian army captures key district of Homs

The Syrian army has captured the key district of Khalidiya in the central city of Homs from rebel fighters.  The military launched a a major offensive on the city last month, which had been held by rebels since 2011.

Car bomb kills 13 north of Damascus

At least 13 people have been killed after a car bomb exploded near a police station near a police station in the town of Deir Atiyeh, north of Damascus.  The Syrian state-run Sana news agency blamed the attack on "terrorists".

FSA commander killed by Takfiri militants

A senior commander of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) has reportedly been killed by a rival rebel group during a meeting in the port city of Latakia.  The largely secular FSA and the Islamic group Takfiri were meeting to discuss battle plans.

Heavy fighting reported in Homs

Heavy fighting has been reported in the central city of Homs for a third straight day, with government forces attacking rebel positions with artillery and air strikes.  Rebel activists claim that their fighters repelled a ground assault on Saturday by Syrian troops supported by Hezbollah fighters.

Suicide bomb reported in Christian area of Damascus

At least four people have been killed in an apparent suicide bomb attack in the largely Christian quarter of Damascus.  Several other people were wounded in the blast, which occurred near a church in the Bab Sharqi neighbourhood.  No group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Reports of massacre in eastern Syria

At least 60 Shia Muslims feared killed by rebels near Deir-al-Zour.

Damascus hit by double bombing

Syrian capital Damascus is rocked by a double bombing which has claimed at least 14 lives and many more injured.  Government forces are currently concentrating efforts to retake control of major cities, some of which are under the control of opposition forces.

France demands release of missing journalists

Two French journalists named as Didier Francois and Edouard Elias, employed by the French radio station Europe 1, are missing in Syria.  French President Francois Hollande has called for their immediate release although the circumstances regarding their detention are unclear.

Syrian army retakes Golan Heights crossing

The Syrian army has seized control of a UN-monitored crossing in the Golan Heights, according to Israeli military sources.  Hours earlier rebel fighters claimed to have captured the Quneitra crossing before the government sent tanks and armoured vehicles to reclaim it.

Army regains control of al-Qusayr

The Syrian army have recaptured the key strategic town of al-Qusayr from rebel fighters after weeks of heavy fighting.  The rebels confirmed that they had been forced to flee the town, which is located 10km from the southern border with Lebanon, because they were heavily outnumbered by the combination of government troops and Lebanese Hezbollah fighters.

Russia sends arms to Syria as EU embargo expires

Russia has said that it will send S-300 anti-aircraft missiles to Syria to deter foreign intervention in the conflict.  The statement comes after the EU decided against renewing an arms embargo on supplying weapons to opposition forces in the country.

Hezbollah fighters killed in Qusair assault

At least 32 fighters from the Lebanese group Hezbollah have been killed during an assault on the rebel-held town of Qusair in southern Syria, according to opposition activists.  State media have disputed the claim, saying that the army had restored security and stability to the town.

Government troops repel rebel attack on Aleppo prison

Government troops have repelled an attack by rebel fighters on a prison in the northern city of Aleppo following hours of heavy fighting.  The rebels had earlier detonated two car bombs outside the walls of the prison, which holds 4,000 inmates, in an attempt to free anti-government activists.

UN peacekeepers kidnapped by rebels in Golan Heights

Four Filipino UN peacekeepers have been kidnapped by rebels along the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria in the Golan Heights.  The Yarmuk Martyrs Brigade rebel group said that they seized the peacekeepers to protect them from fighting in the region.

Israeli carry out airstrikes in Syria

Israel has carried out two airstrikes on targets inside neighbouring Syria, before deploying two batteries of Iron Dome anti-ballistic missiles two prevent any retaliatory strikes.  They Syrian Observatory of Human Rights said that at least 42 Syrian soldiers were killed in the strikes, which targeted a number of military facilities outside Damascus.

Italian journalist reported missing in Syria

An Italian war correspondent has been missing in Syria for 20 days, according to his La Stampa newspaper.  Domenic Quirico, who has extensive experience covering international conflicts, has not made contact with the paper since 09 April.

PM survives Damascus car bombing

Syrian Prime Minister Wael al-Halqi has survived a car bomb attack in central Damascus.  At least six people were killed and more than 20 others wounded in the blast, which appeared to directly target Mr al-Halqi's convoy.

Syrian conflict spills over into Lebanon

Clashes have escalated in the border village of al-Qusayr, amid growing fears that the Syrian conflict is spilling over into Lebanon.  Syrian rebels have warned that they will carry the conflict across the border unless there is an end to what they describe as a Hezbollah-led Shia offensive.  Earlier this week a Hezbollah official said it was the group's duty to defend the citizens in the border villages.

Syrian bishops kidnapped in Aleppo

Two Syrian bishops have been abducted in the village of Kfar Dael in the northern province of Aleppo.  Yohanna Ibrahim, head of the Syriac Orthodox Church, and Paul Yaziji, Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Aleppo, were travelling back from the Turkish border when they were kidnapped by an unknown group.

Activists claims army massacre near Damascus

At least 80 people have been killed after government troops seized the town of Jdeydet al-Fadel near Damascus, according to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights.  Many of the deceased, accused of being terrorists by Syrian state news, were reportedly executed by government forces.

Government air strikes kill 25

At least 25 people have been killed, including nine children, by a series of government air strikes on rebel-held areas of Damascus.  The government also carried out air strikes on the towns of Yabroud, Douma and Harasta.

Car bomb rocks central Damascus

At least 15 people have been killed and more than 50 others wounded after a car bomb exploded in the business district of central Damascus.  The blast occurred near the Sabaa Bahrat Square, close to the Syrian Central Bank.  State media have blamed "terrorists" for the attack.

Syrian helicopter fires rocket into Lebanon

A Syrian helicopter has flown across the border into Lebanon and fired two rockets on the outskirts of the town of Arsal.  No casualties have been reported in the town, which currently hosts around 20,000 Syrian refugees.

Syria Data Sheet

Population:
22 million (2009 est.)
Major Religion/s:
Islam (Sunni), Christian
International dialing code:
+963
International dialing prefix:
00
Emergency services:
Police 112, Medical 110, Fire 113
Drives:
Right
Voltage:
220V
Climate:
Semi-arid
Ohter Major Cities:
Aleppo, Homs, Latakia
Borders:
Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon